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The McCarthys In Early American History
by Michael J. O'Brien.
Originally published by: Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 1921.
This book was scanned and converted to text, for the most part, by Kathy (Burden) Shaffer.
Conversion to webpages was done by Bruce A. Johnson.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|CHAPTER I: THE MC CARTYS OF VIRGINIA||Page 1|
|CHAPTER II: THE MC CARTYS OF VIRGINIA (continued)||Page 39|
|CHAPTER III: THE MC CARTYS OF VIRGINIA (continued)||Page 71|
|CHAPTER IV: THE MC CARTHYS IN MARYLAND, THE CAROLINAS|
|CHAPTER V: THE MC CARTHYS IN LOUISIANA, ILLINOIS AND|
|CHAPTER VI: THE MC CARTYS IN PENNSYLVANIA AND DELAWARE||Page 147|
|CHAPTER VII: THE MC CARTHYS IN NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY||Page 173|
|CHAPTER VIII: THE MAC CARTYS IN MASSACHUSETTS||Page 199|
|CHAPTER IX: THE MAC CARTYS OF MASSACHUSETTS (continued)||Page 240|
|CHAPTER X: MC CARTHYS IN CONNECTICUT, RHODE ISLAND, MAINE,|
NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT
|CHAPTER XI: THE FIGHTING RACE||Page 287|
|MARRIAGE RECORDS||Page 309|
|INDEX (from the book)||Page 319|
The early Irish settlers in America-Their history neglected- Necessity for research work-The MacCarthys an ancient and royal race-Kings of Monster and Princes of Desmond-The ruthless confiscations of their estates by the English-Exiles to France, Spain and Austria and to the American colonies The various forms of spelling the name in the Colonial records.Although many Irish families were settled in America in Colonial and Revolutionary times, and a vast number of Irish names appear in the official records of the country, the contemporary references to these people in American historical works are lamentably scarce and superficial. Much of the matter necessary for a history of their settlements and of their fortunes in the new country is irrecoverably lost, and, with the exception of some desultory references to Irish families in the work of local town historians, in most cases about the only information that can now be gleaned after the lapse of so many years as that contained in the dry official records of the time. While searching for other historical material relating to the early Irish in America, I have picked up some of the lost threads connecting the descendants of the old Irish family of MacCarthy with the Colonial and Revolutionary history of America and have thought they would be of sufficient interest to publish, so that some member of the family in the United States may be induced to take up the subject in earnest and bring out the full story of the many persons of this name who settled in the Western Hemisphere during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
[page vi]While I have no pretensions to having written a complete history of people of the name in the American Colonies, and this book must be accepted as a mere skeleton of facts, I have no doubt that readers of these pages will be surprised to learn that the McCarthys are represented so largely in early American annals. Yet, since much of the data was obtained in a casual way only, it should be understood that the number of McCarthys referred to in this work is far short of the total number of people of the name who were in this country at the period dealt with. If I were tempted to follow the method of some of our historical writers and had clothed the facts with the garb of fancy, it could have been made a much more readable book, but I have determined to let the facts "speak for themselves," in the belief that they are sufficient to show that the McCarthy family is entitled to a place in American history alongside those of any other name or race, not excluding even the Puritans of New England or the Cavaliers of Virginia.
Among the deficiencies of information connected with the history of the early Irish settlers in America, nothing perhaps is more noticable than the absence of biographies of individual Irishmen or their descendants, or genealogies of American families of apish blood. Comparatively few of such genealogies have been published, and it is indeed surprising that the race pride which is supposed to exist among Irish people and their American descendants of the first and second generations has not found expression in the publication of many more family histories. It is unfortunate that the Irish in America have not shown greater industry in this respect, and any one who examines the early public records of the country must at once conclude that, the
[page vii]Irish have sadly neglected the opportunities which these records afford, to rescue from oblivion and to perpetuate a knowledge among their fellow Americans of the part played by men and women of the Irish race in laying the foundations of the structure upon which this great nation rests. There is no earthly reason why the Irish, like Americans of other races, should not be accorded a place in the history of this country. The Huguenot Society has put on record the contributions of the French; the Holland Society has told of the part played by Americans of Dutch descent; the Thistle Society has related the story of the Scotch; the Spaniards have a well established place in American history, and the English have had numberless historians who made it a business and a trade to supply the world with histories of their own making and from their own point of view; in short, nearly every race which made up the population of this country in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with the exception of the Irish, has supplied historians who have put on record the creditable deeds of men and women of their own blood. Thus, the American people have had opportunities to learn what each nationality has contributed to the greatness and progress of their country, but, although the Celtic element was numerically important in the Colonies, the general public knows practically nothing of the history of the Irish immigrants or their American descendants.
A member of the Virginia branch of the McCarthy family, on reading the manuscript of this volume, remarked that he could not understand why, in the published histories of Virginia, the record of the McCarthys had been ignored. I reminded him of the fact that this applies to many other American families descended
[page viii]from Irish immigrants, and that in the comparatively few instances where they have been mentioned by the historians, they are referred to as "Scotch-Irish," the intention being to show that they were of mixed nationality and that their predominant race characteristics, their virtues and saving qualities, but not their faults, were derived from the Scotch. I cannot here resist the temptation to point out, that in nearly every instance where an Irishman distinguished himself in early American history, the so-called historians describe him as "a Scotch-Irishman," while a native of Ireland, who committed some discreditable deed, is unhesitatingly called "an Irishman"!
Irish-blooded Americans are, however, themselves to blame if their people have been relegated to a place of no importance in American history. For many years they have been complaining that "the historians have kept us out of history," remindful of the fact that the fault is all their own, since the real facts are readily obtainable if they would only devote to the work a part of the energy that they waste in denouncing unsympathetic historians. Since a nation is but as, aggregation of individuals and families, it has been well said that "the history of a country is but the history of its people," and in the numerous published genealogies of American families and the biographical works of historical societies are found some of the most interesting items of the nation's history. American genealogists, however, have devoted their attention mainly to families of English or Dutch descent, because the demand for their work came chiefly from those sources. There is a strong and ever increasing reason, therefore, to see this state of affairs remedied, to look into the emigrant ancestry of Americans of Irish blood.
[page ix]It is highly desirable that their history should be traced as far as practicable, but it can be done only by consulting the records of the forms and parishes and the official documents of the Colonial governments, and if the proper spirit were displayed this work would result in making many valuable contributions to the historical literature of the country. In many cases, the Colonial records, which contain the only memorials extant of the early settlers, are time-worn and gradually falling into decay, but upon their fading and perishing pages are chronicled some of the events in which Irishmen and Irishwomen took part, whose names and deeds are forgotten, or perhaps have never been brought to light through the neglect of those who should be most interested in the subject. At this late day it is difficult for an individual working alone in this field, to clothe with any degree of interest the dry-as-dust and barren details of the ordinary affairs of life in which these people figured, and the light afforded by the ancient wills and deeds, parish registers, court proceedings, tombstone inscriptions, newspapers, and the many Colonial and Revolutionary records that I have examined, is insufficient to enable one to write a complete narrative of the lives of these people or of what they contributed to the making of America.
No attempt has been made to extend this account of the American McCarthys beyond the eighteenth century. I believe, however, it should be and can readily be done, for their descendants are numerous in this country, although in some instances the male line has died out and many of their collateral descendants cannot now be recognized at all. It would undoubtedly be a matter of great interest to the numerous McCarthys throughout the United States if the full story were told, especially of the
[page x]descendants of the first two of the name in the Colonies, namely Charles and Owen McCartie, who came to Virginia in 1635, or only fifteen years after the landing of the Pilgrims of the Mayflower. A more extensive search than I have been able to make probably would locate them, and perhaps some unwritten American history of an interesting character would thus be unearthed. It would also be an incentive to other Americans of old Irish stock to take up the history of people of their names and then place on permanent record the story of their deeds, if only as an offset to the spurious accounts that have been published of some of the "Scotch-Irish" by the society calling itself by that racial misnomer.
The MacCarthys are one of the most ancient families of Ireland. One need not dilate at length on the glories of the name in ancient or modern Ireland; enough, that the family has furnished princes and men of eminence from MacCarthy Mor down to Justly McCarthy, the brilliant author of the present day. The antiquarians tell us that the founder of the family was Cormac, King of Munster, A.D. 483. Burke, the leading authority on English and Irish peerages, declares that "few pedigrees in the British empire, if any, can be traced to a more remote or more exalted source than that of the Celtic house of MacCarthy," 1 and the learned Dr. O'Brien says that "it was the most illustrious of all those families whose names begin with Mac." 2 Their history com-
[page xi]mences with the first page of authentic Irish records and is as well attested as the history of any royal house in Christendom, and the fame of their chieftains, the learning, piety and zeal of many saintly men among them form a vast inheritance of glorious memories. 3 As the Irish antiquarian, Windele, wrote: "Notwithstanding that a large proportion of the persons forming their high ancestral stock belong to the mythic period of Irish history, the MacCarthys may proudly defy any other family in Europe to compete with them in antiquity or accurate preservation of their records." According to the Anals of the Four Masters, "thirty of the Kings of Ireland and sixty-one of her Saints descended from the MacCarthys, and to them belongs the matchless glory of producing the first Christian King in Ireland, to whom the country owes the welcome of its religion into the land, and not only this but the assembling, christianizing and sanctioning of the code of their laws, the Seanchus Mor, under which our ancestors lived for twelve centuries."
The ancestry of the family can be traced through twenty-eight monarchs who governed Ireland, back to the dawn of Christianity, and, if regard be had to primogeniture and seniority of descent, the MacCarthy family is the first in Ireland. "Long before the founders of the oldest royal families of Europe, before Rodolph acquired the empire of Germany, or a Bourbon ascended the throne of France, Cormac MacCarthy ruled over
[page xii]Munster and the title of King was at least continued in name in his posterity down to the reign of Elizabeth." 4 In the history of ancient Ireland Cormac MacArt, 115th. monarch of the Kingdom, is a famous figure. He is noted especially for establishing a university at Tara, one of whose schools Was for teaching jurisprudence.
Unless the Roman Forum be regarded as a law school, Cormac's was the first law school in existence, and it was he also who gave to the world that system of chronicogy which makes the records of a country from year to year synchronize with the history of other countries, by collaring events with the reigns of contemporary foreign potentates.
Heads of families of this name in Munster have held many proud titles; among them were Princes of Desmond, Princes of Carbery, Earls of ClanCarthy, Earls of Muskerry, and Earls of Mountcashel. Their possessions were located chiefly in the Counties of Cork and Kerry, where for centuries they maintained their princely predominance, and in the sixteenth century their influence in Ireland was so great that all Queen Elizabethan designs were aimed at the destruction of their power! An Irish poet has sung of them:
"Oh ! bright are the names of their chieftains and wages That shine like the Bears through the darkness of ages, Whose deeds are inscribed on the pages of story, There forever to live in the sunshine of glory.
Heroes of history, phantoms of fable, Charlemange's champions and Arthur's round table.
Oh! but they all a new lustre could borrow From the glory that hangs round the name of MacCaura." 5
[page xiii]O'Hart 6 says that the name, MacCarthy, is derived from Carthach (number 107 on the MacCarthy Mor pedigree), who was Prince of Desmond in the tenth century, and, from the meaning of the name, he concludes that Carthach was the founder of the City of Cashel, which was formerly the royal seat of the Kingdom of Desmond or South Munster. This Carthach is described in Irish annals as "a great commander against the Danes" in the war between the Irish and the Danes which was terminated at the battle of Clontarf, A.D. 1014. Muireadach, son of Carthach, born in the year 1011, and who became King of Munster in 1045, is said to have been the first to assume the name, MacCarahaigh, afterwards anglicized into MacCarthy and MacCaura. 7 Donal Mor na-Caura, descendant of Carthach, was Prince of Desmond from 1185 to 1205, and from this Donal the word "Mor" meaning "great," was added to the surname of the elder branch of the family to distinguish it from the younger branches, and hence the name, MacCarthy Mor.
The pedigree of the family as traced by the Irish antiquarians shows that they were a numerous Sept, and for several centuries they were divided into three great stems, each subdivided into several minor, and dependent, but still powerful branches. The main line was that of MacCarthy Mor, the second MacCarthy Reagh, and the third MacCarthy of Muskerry. For several generations the descendants in the main line were known chiefly as Kings of Desmond, the MacCarthy Reaghs as Princes of Carbery and the third branch as Lords of Muskerry. They had several castles in Cork and Kerry. Descriptions of them say that these castles were
[page xiv]massively constructed; their towers and battlements were equal in grandeur and strength to those elsewhere in Europe, and for generation after generation they defied the attacks of time and the elements and proudly reared aloft their stately walls. The principal seat of MacCarthy Mor was historic Muckross castle at the Lakes of Killarney and which is now in the possession of a descendant of a Cromwellian soldier. "Of one hundred and sixty castles in the County of Cork," says Windele, "twenty-six were erected by the MacCarthy Mor." 8 The principal seat of the MacCarthy Reagh branch of the family was a stately building at Kilbrittain, County Cork, and the famous Blarney Castle in the same county, until the Revolution of 1688, was the residence of the branch which bore the title of Lords of Muskerry.
One of the most noted members of the family was Florence MacCarthy, who flourished in the latter part of the fifteenth and early in the sixteenth centuries. In the Pacata Hibernia and in Smith's histories of Cork, Kerry and Waterford much interesting detail is related of his career, and "The Life and Letters of Florence MacCarthy Reagh, Tanist of Carbery," compiled from documents in the English State Paper Office at London, by one of his descendants, Daniel MacCarthy Glas, is one of the most interesting and valuable contributions to the history of the family that has ever been published. This Florence was a collateral descendant of Donal Mor na-Caura in the twelfth generation, and according to O'Hart in the year 1600 he was "solemnly created The MacCarthy Mor with all the rites and ceremonies of his family for hundreds of generations, which title and dignity was formally approved of by Hugh
[page xv]O'Neill, then Ard-Righ, or Ruler of the Irish in Ireland." 9 He married his kinswoman, Elena, daughter of Donal MacCarthy Mor, Earl of Clancare, and became Prince of Desmond. He was twice a prisoner of the English; the first period lasting for eleven years for "the offense of marrying an Irish princess without Queen Elizabethan permission," the second lasting for thirty-nine years and was "for reasons of state," and in neither case was he brought to trial. He died in London in the year 1640. 10
Another famous member of the family was Donough MacCarthy, Lord of Muskerry, who was created Earl of ClanCarthy in 1658, and was commander of the Munster forces in the wars in Ireland in 1641 and against the Cromwellians in 1652. He was exiled to the Continent and his property conferred on his second wife, Ellen, sister of the Duke of Ormond. At the Restoretion of Charles II, he returned to Ireland and died in London in the year 1665. He had a son named Donal who was known as the Buchaill Ban, or "the fair-haired boy," and this Donal was the father of Donal, or Daniel, McCarty of Virginia, hereinafter referred to as an exile from Ireland to Virginia after the Treaty of Limerick in 1691. Donough MacCarthy's other sons were Cormac, Callaghan and Justin, the last of whom was created Earl of Mountcashel by King James in 1689. Cormac, eldest son of Donough, became an officer of the English navy and when he fell by the side of the Duke of York (afterwards King James II), at a great naval engagement between the English and Dutch Fleets in the year 1665, it was decided that he should be honored with a public funeral, and "accordingly, with all imaginable heraldic
[page xvi]pomp and solemnity, attended by many of the nobility of England, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Chancellor, the remains of this Milesian chieftain were interred in Westminster Abbey." 11 Callaghan, second son of Donough MacCarthy, married Elizabeth Fitzgerald, daughter of the Earl of Kildare, by whom he had a son named Donough who became fourth Earl of ClanCarthy. Donough was educated by the Archbishop of Canterbury in England and there married Elizabeth Spencer, daughter of Robert Spencer, Earl of Sutherland. On the accession of James the Second he returned to Ireland and took a prominent part with his uncle, Lord Mountcashel, in the James and Williamite war which ended with the Treaty of Limerick. On the landing of King James at Kinsale from France in the year 1689 he received and entertained that monarch and continued to support his cause until captured by the forces of the Duke of Marlborough, who conveyed him a prisoner to the Tower of London. Thence he escaped to France in 1694, where he received the command of King James' Guards. Four years later he ventured to return to England in a fruitless effort to recover his property which had been parceled out among the victorious Williamite Generals and other officers of the English Crown. He was instantly arrested and was exiled on the miserable pension of 300 pounds per year, and on the condition that he should never return to his native land. The enormous wealth of this branch of the MacCarthys may be supposed from a passage in Windele's account of the Earl of ClanCarthy: "With the fortunes of King James fell those of ClanCarthy. His property, which upon a loose calculation made in
[page xvii]the middle of the last (eighteenth) century, was supposed to be worth 150,000 pounds per annum and in 1796 about 200,000 pounds, was confiscated." 12
The unfortunate Earl, thus deprived of his estates, retired to Altona in Germany and purchased a little island at the mouth of the Elbe, where he died in the year 1734. In a news despatch dated "London, October 1, 1734," printed in the American Weekly Mercury of Philadelphia for the week, December 17-24, 1734, I find the following interesting comments: "Advice is come from Hamburg, that about ten days since died at Altona, a Town near that City, the Right Honourable Donough, Earl of Clancarty, Viscount Muskerry, etc., in the Kingdom of Ireland, aged 78 years. He marry'd the Lady Elizabeth Spencer, Daughter of Robert, Earl of Sutherland, Prime Minister to King James the Second. She died at Copenhagen in the year 1703, whither she accompany'd her Lord in Banishment (he having been attainted for having taken up Arms in Ireland for that unhappy Prince), leaving Issue a Son and a Daughter, Viz. Donah, Viscount Muskerry, now Earl of Clancarty (his Father's attainder having been reversed), who commands one of his Majesty's Ships of War upon the Coast of Newfoundland, and the Lady Charlotte, Wife to the Right Honourable John, Lord Delaware, Treasurer of his Majesty's Household."
Donough, fourth Earl of ClanCarthy, had a son named Donough, who entered the English navy, and through the instrumentality of the Prime Minister of France the English Cabinet, in 1735, was induced to consider a measure for the reversal of the iniquitous outlawry of his deceased father and the restoration of his estates. But, the faction which at that time ruled the English Parlia-
[page xviii]ment, becoming alarmed at the idea of the restoration of so popular a chieftain as the Earl of ClanCarthy, passed a law declaring as "public enemies" all lawyers who should be concerned in his appeal, and the young Earl's cause consequently was abandoned. Thereupon, he threw up his commission and went to France where he spent many years in virtual poverty, until he obtained from the French King an annual pension of 1000 pounds.
Justin MarCarthy, Earl of Mountcashel, third son of Donough, Earl of ClanCarthy, was one of the principal commanders of King James' Irish army in the war with William of Orange. On the defeat of his troops at Enniskillen in 1689 he was made prisoner, but he escaped and fled to France where he met with a most flattering reception from Louis XIV, at whose hands he had the distinction of receiving a commission of Lieutenant-General entitling him to command all the Irish troops in the service of France. He died at Barrege in France in the year 1694 of wounds received in battle. His wife was Arabella, daughter of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, and one of his grand-daughters became the wife, first of the famous Patrick Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan, who commanded the Irish army during the siege of Limerick, and second of James Fitzjames, Duke of Berwick, natural son of James the Second. An reconfirmed tradition in the McCarty family of Virginia says that the Dennis MacCarthy of Rappahannock County hereinafter referred to was a son of Justin, Lord Mountcashel, but the pedigree of the family makes no mention of a son named Dennis and it is said, in fact, that "the Earl of Mountcashel left no male issue". 13 Many other interesting incidents are related in Irish history of the
[page xix]vicissitudes of this noble family. Of an exiled member of another branch of the MacCarthys the following affecting incident is related by Crofton Croker in his Researches:
"A considerable part of the MacCarthy estates in the County of Cork was held by Mr. S --- about the middle of the last century. Walking one evening in his demesne, he observed a figure, apparently asleep, at the foot of an aged tree, and, approaching the spot, found an old man extended on the ground, whose audible sobs proclaimed the severest ambition. Mr. S ----- enquired the cause and was answered 'Forgive me, sir, my grief is idle, but to mourn is a relief to the desolate heart and humbled spirit. I am a MacCarthy, once the possessor of that castle, now in ruins, and of this ground; this tree was planted by my own hands and I have returned to water its roots with my tears. To-morrow I sail for Spain, where I have long been an exile and an outlaw since the Revolution. I am an old man, and to-night, probably for the last time, bid farewell to the place of my birth and the house of my forefathers."
Justin MacCarthy, a representative of the house of MacCarthy Reagh, also became an exile to France after the Revolution of 1689. He lived at Toulouse as late as 1767, and of him a writer in Bolster's Quarterly Magazine 14 many years ago wrote: "The late Comte de MacCarthy Reagh resided at Toulouse and left behind him at his decease a magnificent library, second only to that of the King of France. No other library in Europe possessed so large a number of printed and manuscript books on vellum, of which scarce and valuable material alone it contained not less than 826 volumes. His sons, nevertheless, at his death, found themselves under the necessity of parting with it, and thus the splendid literary cabinet, the pride of this unfortunate family, became scattered over England and France! It
[page xx]would seem as if Fortune had not yet ceased her persecution of an ancient and distinguished race!" As in the case of other old Irish families, with their power utterly broken and their estates confiscated by the English invaders, they had no recourse but to seek asylum in foreign lands, and in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries we find many of this ancient and royal race emigrating to France, Spain and Austria and some to the American Colonies. In American records there is less scarcity of this ancient Irish name than one would be led to suppose from a perusal of the work of the historians. In the records of all the original Thirteen Colonies the name is found, beginning in the case of Virginia as early as the third decade of the seventeenth century and down to and beyond the period of the Revolution. The McCarthys are found among the early settlers of nearly every American State and Territory; among the border men and hunters who were the first to penetrate the wilderness of the west and south; in the rosters of the Colonial militia who held back the redmen at the frontiers of civilization; in the ranks of the army and navy of the Revolution; among pioneer merchants and professional men, and more especially among those humbler citizens, the "men with the hoe," who so seldom find a place in the pages of history. In short, people of this name have cut more or less of a figure in those spheres where only men of good red blood and undaunted courage usually find a place.
The names and data here given are obtained by examination of the records, and where the records themselves were not obtainable, from official copies of them published by the various states, the town and county histories, genealogies, publications of historical societies and other reliable sources. How many more McCarthys
[page xxi]could be located by a more exhaustive search I am not prepared to say, but those mentioned here seem to be sufficiently numerous and important to serve as an incentive to the American McCarthys to make a special study of the history of people of this name in the Western Hemisphere. For example, an effort might be made, by following up the official records of the regiments of which they were members, to ascertain what part was played by the four hundred or more McCarthys who served in the Colonial and Revolutionary wars and in the second war for Independence. Whatever influence they had during the Revolutionary struggle, it was almost wholly on the patriot side, and according to the enlistment papers we find among them many young men, who evidently were active, eager spirits in the cause of Independence, and who probably rendered good service to their country in her hour of trial. It is a singular fact that only two persons of the name can be found among the "Loyalists of the Revolution," Isiah and Denis McCarty, whose names appear in lists of royalists who settled in Nova Scotia. Where these two McCartys were located in the American Colonies I am unable to say, but I believe it was in New England.
While there are clear indications that some of the American Irish McCarthys of those early days were of the better classes and were men of education and refinement, who, "preferring an altar in the desert to a coronet at court," voluntarily expatriated themselves to the Colonies, I have no doubt that the majority of those whose names appear in the early records crossed the seas as poor "redemptioners" and had to work their way against obstacles of the most difficult character. But, their record in America has been an honorable one and in several instances they or their immediate descend-
[page xxii]ants are seen to have risen to places of trust and responsebility in the business, political and social life of their day.
Although the correct spelling of the name is "MacCarthy," I have selected for the title of this book the form of the name in most general use, viz., "McCarthy." As in many other cases, the name is spelled in divers curious ways in the colonial records, for all surnames were at the mercy of the whims and caprices of the officials of the period, and while I am quoting the exact spelling as it is recorded in each instance, it should be understood that all such persons mentioned herein were of the old MacCarthy family of Munster. The labor of collecting this material has been great, yet it is only part of other more extensive researches that I have made into the history of the early Irish in America, and this may serve as an explanation of what will probably be noticed by my readers, namely, that in the case of many of the McCarthys whose names appear in public records I have furnished very little details of their history. That is because my opportunities for research were often limited and were confined largely to places where the information is readily accessible.
[page 1]CHAPTER I
THE MC CARTYS OF VIRGINIA
Charles and Owen McCartie, the first of the name in America-- The Town of Kinsale, Va., founded by Irish Colonists about 1662--Dennis MacCarthy, patentee of lands in Rappahannock and Princess Anne Counties in 1675--Daniel McCarty, King's Attorney in Virginia in 1692--A wealthy land-owner --Speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses, 1705-- 1715--His interesting career--Other Irish pioneers in VirginiaIn the State Paper Department at the Public Record Office of England there are still preserved some of the passenger lists of the ships that left English ports for the American Colonies during the seventeenth century. The copies of these manuscripts, as transcribed by John Camden Hotten, are familiarly known as "Hotten's Original Lists" and were published at London in the year 1874, under the title of "The Original Lists of Persons of Quality, Emigrants, Religious Exiles, Political Rebels, Serving Men, sold for a term of years, etc., who went from Great Britain to the American Plantations between 1600 and 1700."
The "Immigrant Lists to Virginia" of this period contain a surprisingly large number of Irish names, and among those who came to Virginia in the Plaine Joane
[page 2]which sailed from London on May 15, 1635, were Charles and Owen McCartie. 1 The Plaine Joane is said to have disembarked her passengers at Newport News in whose immediate vicinity some of them are known to have settled, while others moved out along the James and Rappahannock Rivers, where they worked as laborers on the plantations or later received grants of uncultivated lands themselves. A search through the Virginia records fails to disclose any trace of the whereabouts of Charles or Owen McCartie, except that mention is made of their names in the records of Norfolk County, where it is said that Charles was-aged twenty-seven and Owen eigh-teen at the time of their arrival. Their names do not appear in the early land patents, which indicates the probability that they came over as "redemptioners" and were employed in some capacity by Virginia planters.
It is noted that they came to this country, not direct from Ireland but from the port of London. At that time and during the period of Oliver Cromwell's activities in Ireland, thousands of Irish youths of both sexes were forcibly seized, taken to English ports and thence transported across the seas. Some were sent to the islands of the West Indies and others to the American Colonies, where they were placed in the service of the planters of Virginia and New England, and in the Colonial records may be found the names of many of those Irish boys and girls acting as servitors to their English masters. No discrimination was made as to the social standing of the families who were visited by these
[page 3]traffickers in human lives, and Prendergast relates, in The Cromwellian Settlement of Ireland, the shocking details of the seizures of boys and girls of gentle birth who were caught and hurried to the private prisons of these English "man-catchers" and afterwards transported to the American plantations.
It is not perhaps, assuming too much to say that Charles and Owen McCartie were brothers, and no doubt at their age were able-bodied men, and consequently equipped by nature to brave the unknown perils and undergo the privations of a savage and unreclaimed wilderness. If, as appears from a tradition which exists among the McCartys of Virginia, they left the protection of the seaboard settlements and proceeded inland as the servitors of some planter or to carve out destinies for themselves, we can imagine that they were possessed of no mean courage, when we consider the conditions that prevailed in the then unexplored region that stretched from Chesapeake Bay north and west to the Blue Ridge and Shenandoah mountains. At this period, much of that territory was nothing more than a vast hunting ground upon which the savage tribes of the west and south killed elk and buffalo and occasionally encountered each other in bloody conflict. Few permanent settlements existed within its borders. It was inhabited mostly by Indians hostile to the whites, each and all of whom fiercely disputed the settlement of the territory. To meet these conditions required men with nerves of iron and sinews of steel, and it is men of that caliber only that were instrumental in redeeming the great Southwest from the savage and opening the way for the stream of civilization which has since poured over its fertile plains.
The family tradition says that Charles and Owen, in
[page 4]course of time, returned to the seaboard and found a permanent location for settlement in one of the Virginia Counties bordering on Chesapeake Bay, and that they were among those who began the settlement known afterwards as the town of Kinsale, at the mouth of the Yeocomico River, a branch of the Potomac, about the year 1662. If that were true, it suggests the probability, as in the case of Charles McCarthy of Rhode Island hereinafter referred to, that these interesting pioneers came from Kinsale in the County of Cork and that the name of the Virginia town was selected in memory of their original home in Ireland. 2 Kinsale, Va., is a place that is seldom heard of and it has grown but little in the 250 years of its existence, though it appears to have been a place of much trade in tobacco in colonial days; its shipping was considerable at one time and although it gave promise of becoming a town of no small importance, yet, like many other old places in the South, it failed to fulfill expectations.
But, despite the tradition, it is hardly probable that Charles and Owen McCartie were among the founders of Kinsale, because their names do not appear in any of the Virginia land records. It cannot be supposed that the "founders" of a town could be other than substantial colonists, and as nearly all men of standing and substance in those days were landed proprietors, since it does not appear that Charles or Owen McCartie received any grant of land from the Colony it must be assumed that they were employed in some lowly capacity. However, according to a statement made by Captain W. Page McCarty, a former editor of the Richmond Times, whose information was obtained from the papers of his father,
[page 5]at one time Governor of Florida, "Colonels McClanahan, Andrew Wagoner and Major Richard McCarty of the Revolution were descendants of a small group of Irishmen who named the little town of Kinsale on the Potomac about 1662. Daniel McCarty, Speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1715, was of this set of people and was grandson of McCarty of Glencare." 3
Mr. William G. Stanard, Secretary of the Virginia Historical Society and one of the leading authorities on early Virginia history, informs me: "it is apparent that a group of immigrants from the South of Ireland located on the Rappahannock River some time between 1650 and 1680, and although there is no tangible proof as to when or by whom the settlement was established, it is known that among those who comprised this early Virginia colony were the families of McCarty, Travers, Rice and my own family, the Stanards." He has no further knowledge of the Irish colony "farther back than William Stanard who appears in Middlesex County on the Rappahannock about 1674," and "although there is no record of any marriage or connection with any family named Eaton, yet one of William Stanard's grandsons named a son Eaton Stanard, and as there was an Eaton Stanard, a lawyer of some prominence and Recorder of Dublin about 1735, who belonged to a family of Stanards described as of Ballyhealy Castle in the County of Cork, the assumption is that the Stanard who came in the Irish colony alluded to was of the Cork family of the name." Accepting Mr. Stanard's statement as correct that the Travers, the McCartys and the others came to Virginia about the same time, the statement as to the founding of the town of Kinsale "about the year 1662," would seem to be con-
[page 6]firmed, since Virginia records show that the Travers were in the colony in 1663, and in the books of the House of Burgesses of that year the head of the family is styled "Colonel William Travers." 4
Members of the Travers and Rice families are mentioned several times in Virginia records in connection with the McCartys. The Travers were an old Cork family of probable English descent, and O'Hart names the Rices among "the chief Anglo-Norman and English families" who settled in the County of Kerry. 5 The records of old Rappahannock County at Essex Court House show that Dennis McCartee was appointed on December 20, 1686, "Attorney for Rebecca Rice, wife of John Rice, a merchant of Rappahannock County," to give her consent to the execution of a deed, and, according to Hayden, compiler of Virginia Genealogies, in executing the deed Rice and his wife both used as seals the arms of the Rice family of Dingle, County Kerry. Their daughter is on record as marrying "William Travers Gentleman," whose will also bears the Rice arms. This John Rice, his wife and his brother, James, were refugees from Ireland to the Island of Barbadoes and their names appear in the list of worshippers at St. Michael's Catholic Church, Barbadoes, in 1675, and on August 3, 1679, they are on record as receiving tickets to emigrate from Barbadoes to Virginia on the ship, Young William. 6 When Daniel McCarty devised certain lands in Richmond County in 1724, his will said that these lands had been entailed on his, Daniel's, father by Captain John Rice, so it is probable that the McCartys and Rices were related either by blood or by marriage.
With the exception of Charles and Owen, no other
[page 7]immigrants of the name appear in the lists of passengers on the ships that arrived in Virginia up to the end of the seventeenth century, as far as I have been able to find. In all likelihood, Charles and Owen McCartie, or either of them, married, and some of the McCarties whom I have located in Virginia and the neighboring colonies were descendants of the immigrants of the Plaine Joane. The period of their removal to the vicinity of Chesapeake Bay is problematical, since there is nothing on record concerning it, and their permanent settlement in that part of the State prior to the establishment of the town of Kinsale has no other authority than a family tradition. All available sources of information such as land grants, parish registers, court files, wills and deeds and publications of the historical societies have been examined, but, with the single exception of the reference to them in the records of Norfolk County, there is no trace of their names in any public records after their arrival in 1635. In the absence of this information, therefore, the authentic history of the family in Virginia begins with Dennis and Daniel McCarty.
In addition to the data secured from public records, Hayden's Virginia Genealogies furnish many interesting items linking the members of this family with other historic families of the South, although it is clear that Hayden erred in several instances, probably because he failed to examine all of the records or became confused through the constant appearance of members of different branches of the family bearing the same Christian names. The pedigree of this ancient family shows the Christian names, Tiege, Donal, Donogh, Finin and Cormac occurring generation after generation, and in the American branches we observe the constant recurrence
[page 8]of the same given names, that is, the corresponding anglicized forms, Thaddeus, Daniel, Dennis, Florence and Charles respectively. Eoghan, or Owen, was also a popular name in the family, and there can be little doubt that the exiles of 1635, Charles and Owen McCartie, were of this family and were closely related to Dennis and Daniel of Virginia, as well as to Thaddeus and Florence MacCarty of Boston, hereinafter mentioned.
So many McCartys appear in Virginia records and there are so many variations in the spelling of the surname, as well as many repetitions of the same given name in the different branches of the family, that it is an extremely difficult matter to trace them and their numerous descendants. The name is found at various periods in the land books and court and church records of Rappahannock, Princess Ann, King George, Northumberland, Norfolk, Stafford, Fairfax, Westmoreland, Loudoun, Hampshire, Prince William, York, Isle of Wight and Richmond Counties, Virginia, beginning in some instances as early as the year 1675 and down to the present time, although their descendants are now scattered all over the Southern States. In the Virginia land books the name is spelled in several different forms, such as MacCarthy, McCarty, McCartee, MacCartoo, McCartie, Maccarty, Macartagh, Mackartee, Carty and Cartie. In all cases it was not in this country that the name was changed from its original form to "Carty" and "Cartie," because the pedigree of the family as published by O'Hart and other authorities shows several instances where the name was spelled without the prefix, "Mac," before any of the family came to the Colonies.
The first mention of the name, aside from that of the two who came over in 1635, is found in the records of the Land Office at Richmond, wherein it is seen that by
[page 9]deed dated September 21, 1675, one Edmund Moore conveyed to "Dennis MacCartee of Rappahannock County" 250 acres of land, described as "lying on the Eastern Shore of Lynnhaven, at the time of the Survey in the County of Lower Norfolk, but now in Princess Ann County." For some reason that does not appear the title to these lands was further secured by patent dated October 20, 1692, from Governor Francis Nicholson to Dennis Maccartee, and the document states that one hundred acres of the tract were "due unto the said Dennis Maccartee for the importation of two psons." 7 There is a reference also to a deed executed in Norfolk County in the year 1675, by which "Dennis Macartie" sold to Adam Keeling "250 acres of land formerly belonging to Thomas Allen in Linhaven," although there is nothing to show how he came into possession of these lands, and Edmund Moore sold to "Dennis Macartagh" 150 acres "on the Eastern Shore of Lynnhaven" in the same year. 8
The next entry in which he appears is on September 15, 1691, in a grant of 250 acres described as "on the east and south sides of a branch of the Wiccocomo River in Northumberland County." In the patent for these lands his name is recorded as "Macarte," and curiously enough in the body of the document he is referred to as "the said Cartoo" and "the said Dennis Macarto," and in the margin of the patent there is a reference to him reading: "Cartoo, Mr. Dennis, pt 250 acres of land." 9 On October 16, 1691, he received a further grant of 250 acres in Princess Ann County, and on October 29, 1697, Dennis Maccartee and Adam Keeling were granted a patent for 400 acres in the same County, "escheated
[page 10]lands late in the possession of Jonathan Langsworth, deceased." 10 This latter Dennis Maccartee must have been a son of the first Dennis, since the latter died in the year 1694, as the probate of his will filed in Richmond (formerly Rappahannock) County shows. There was also a Dennis MacCartie who lived in Princess Ann County in 1693, described as "old, lame and poor," 11 but it is hardly possible that this could have been the first-mentioned Dennis, since he seems to have been a prosperous land owner. The patent of October 29, 1697, was granted by Governor Edmund Andros and in the original entry in the land book the name is spelled variously "Maccartie," "MacCarty" and "Maccartoo." 12
The MacCarthys were not the only Irishmen who owned lands in Norfolk or Lower Norfolk County at this time, and indeed so many of their countrymen are mentioned in the early records of this part of the State that it would appear an Irish settlement was planted there sometime in the seventeenth century. Among the surnames which occur in the land and probate records of this part of Virginia between 1650 and 1700 are Barry, Brady, Burke, Carney, Condon, Connell, Connor, Corbett, Daly, Donnell, Dougherty, Foley, Fitzgerald, Grady, Gilligan, Higgins, Hayley, Hurley, Hayes, Joyce, Kelley, Lary, Mahoney, MacKroree, McEllalen, MacKenny, Macdaniel, McCoy, McLenahan, Mulligan, Murphy, O'Neal, Piggott, Reilly, Shea, Sheane or Sheehan, Slavin and Sullivan.
An unconfirmed tradition in the family says that Dennis MacCarthy of Rappahannock was a son of Justin,
[page 11]Earl of Mountcasshel, who succeeded to the title and estates of his father, Donoch or Dennis, Earl of Clan Carthy, on the latter's death in the year 1665. Justin, Lord Mountcashel, married Arabella, daughter of the famous Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, although in the issue of this marriage, as listed by O'Hart, there is no mention of a son named Dennis. There are various conflicting statements as to the period of his settlement in Virginia. Dr. Lyon G. Tyler, a former president of William and Mary College and a well-known authority on early Virginia history, states that Dennis MacCarthy came to the colony "about 1670"; 13 yet another historical writer names "1668" 14 as the year of his marriage in Virginia. Still another historian intimates that he settled first in Norfolk County in the year 1675. In the "Registry of American Families entitled to Coat Armor," 15 familiarly known as "Crozier's General Armory," the name is listed. The registry contains descriptions of nearly two thousand coats of arms, with the name of the first of the family in America in each case, the date of his arrival and the place of settlement, and in many instances the town or country whence he came. Under the name, McCarty, appears: "Dennis McCarty of Norfolk, 1675," followed by a description of the arms of the MacCarthy family of Ireland.
While it is seen from these different dates that the exact period of Dennis MacCarthy's advent in Virginia is not known for a certainty, it is clear that he was in the colony as early as 1675 and the best evidence is that in March of that year he married an English lady
[page 12]named Elizabeth Billington, daughter of Luke Billington of Farnham Parish, now in Richmond, but then in Rappahannock County. It is certain that he and his wife lived in or near Farnham Parish in 1678, since the register of Farnham Parish church on file in the County Clerk's office at Warsaw, Va., contains entries of the births of two of their children, namely "Catherine, daughter of Dennis and Elizabeth McCarthy," on April 16, 1678, and "Daniel, son of Dennis and Elizabeth McCarthy," on March 19, 1684. It appears they had two other children named Florence and Dennis, but I am unable to obtain any information as to when or where they were born. According to "Order Book No. I," Richmond County records, the "will of Dennis McCarthy" was admitted to probate on April 4, 1694, 16 so that Hayden's statement that "Dennis died about 1700" 17 is obviously incorrect.
We see from the foregoing extracts from the records that Dennis MacCarthy was the owner of a large estate in widely separated parts of Virginia in the closing years of the seventeenth century. From the place where he is first located in old Rappahannock County to Norfolk County, at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, was a very considerable distance to cover in those days of Indian trails, bridgeless streams and virgin forests. He could not have managed his large interests in person, and no doubt his object in acquiring so much land was for the purpose of enabling his sons to carve out careers for themselves. He seems to have retained his plantation in Rappahannock County for himself, that in Norfolk
[page 13]County he gave to his son Dennis, his estate in Northumberland County to Daniel, and his other son, Florence, was the owner of a plantation in York County. These three became the founders of separate branches of the family whose descendants have since spread themselves all over the United States. It appears there were three of the family named Dennis and three named Daniel, all in Virginia about the same period. These were:
(1) Dennis of old Rappahannock, who first appears in the land records in 1675 and who had four children, viz.--
Catherine, born in Farnham Parish, April 16, 1678;
Daniel, born in Farnham Parish, March 19, 1684;
(2) Dennis, date and place of birth not ascertained;
Florence, date and place of birth not ascertained.
(3) Dennis of Princess Ann County, of whose descendants, if any, nothing is known.
(1) Daniel, the above son of Dennis of Rappahannock.
(2) Daniel of Westmoreland County, who was exiled to the colonies about 1692.
(3) Daniel, who was appointed "King's Attorney for Rappahannock County" in 1692.
The last-mentioned Daniel McCarty could not have been a son of Dennis of Rappahannock, since his son was only eight years old in 1692; nor could the King's Attorney have been the Daniel who was exiled about 1692, because the latter was only thirteen years old at the time. It is possible that the "two psons" Dennis
[page 14]MacCarthy brought to the Colony, and for whose "importation" he received one hundred acres of land, as stated in the patent of October 20, 1692, were his sons, Dennis and Florence, which may be the explanation why there is no entry of their births in Virginia church records. Who the father of the King's Attorney was there is nothing to indicate, although it may possibly have been the Dennis of Princess Ann County. The branches of the family tree, running in so many different directions, make a very complicated problem to solve at this late day, especially when it is considered that two of the Daniels were known as "Captain" and each had sons named Daniel and Dennis, and it is hard to differentiate between the two when their names appear in public records. In many cases it is impracticable to determine the relationships which existed between the different persons of the name, without making an elaborate study of all the old records, and it is doubtful if even this could be done at all for the reason that some of the parish records and land and will books are not now obtainable. Besides, it is clear from a study of the available information, that some branches of the family became extinct through failure of the male line. Many of the papers and heirlooms of the family were destroyed in a fire at the home of one of the McCartys at Merry Point, Lancaster County, shortly after the Civil War, and I am informed that this house was the repository of much genealogical data relating to the early members of the family in Virginia.
Hayden says that Daniel of Westmoreland County "probably" was a son of Dennis of Rappahannock, 18 but he is clearly mistaken in that assumption, since it is known that Daniel of Westmoreland was a son of
[page 15]Donal McCarthy, and the Farnham Parish register shows that Daniel, son of Dennis, was born in Virginia on March 19, 1684, and Captain William Page McCarty, great-great-grandson of Daniel of Westmoreland, wrote that the latter was "exiled by the Treaty of Limerick" (1691). Besides, the year of the death of Daniel of Westmoreland is shown on his tombstone at Montross, Va., as 1724 at the age of forty-five, while the Farnham Parish register gives the date of burial of Daniel, son of Dennis, as August 6, 1739. And the fact that Dennis resided in Virginia at least four years before Daniel was born again proves that Hayden's assumption as to their having been father and son was an error, and that his genealogy of the family begins on a wrong basis. I think these facts are conclusive and it is plain that Hayden confused the different Daniels.
All indications are that Dennis MacCarthy of Rappahannock was a near relative of Daniel, the Irish exile, and, if the tradition before referred to were correct, they were second cousins. Another well-known Virginia historian, also erred in his reference to the McCartys. Bishop William Meade, 19 in his "Old Churches, Ministers and Families of Virginia," 20 says: "The McCartys of Virginia are an ancient family springing from Daniel and Dennis McCarty, who are first mentioned in 1710."
[page 16]This is obviously incorrect as to the year, since it is shown by the family records that Daniel came to the Colony about 1692 and all three Dennis McCartys were here many years before 1710.
Daniel McCarty, King's Attorney for Rappahannock County, was appointed "Queen's Attorney" in 1707. In "Order Book No. 4, 1692-1709," Court records of Richmond County, at Warsaw, Va., under date of February 5, 1707, appears the following entry linking the names of John and Lawrence Washington with that of Daniel McCarty in connection with an action at law:
"The Jury finds that Colonel John Washington, being seized of 1400 acres of land in Rappahannock County (since Richmond), by his last will gave the same to Anne, his daughter, who married Francis Wright, Gent., by whom he had a son, John, and we find that said Francis conveyed 200 acres to Lawrence Washington, George Eskridge and Daniel McCarty, Attorneys for the King." 21
Although King's attorney, Daniel McCarty also practiced law in the County Courts and there are several cases of record where he appeared as counsel for private litigants. He also married into the Billington family, his wife having been Barbara, sister of the Elizabeth Billington who married Dennis of Rappahannock. Daniel McCarty and "his wife Barbary" are on record as executing a deed in Richmond County in 1698. In the nuncupative will of Luke Billington, Junior, given orally to his brother, McCarty Billington, on January 25, 1686, probated March 11, 1687, he left legacies to his sister, Barbara McCarty, "my pistolls to little Daniell McCarty," and after providing for other bequests he directed that "the rest of my estate shall go to my cousins, your three children." The passage in the will
[page 17]indicates how relationships were sometimes styled in those days, because the three children of Barbara McCarty, whom Luke Billington called his "cousins," were in reality his nephews.
In the patents recorded at the Land Office in Richmond prior to 1666 there are 350 Irish names mentioned, nearly all "head rights," among whom were Elisa Macartee who arrived in the year 1653 and Mahan Carty in 1655. 22 John Macartey is mentioned in York County in the year 1681 as "a small farmer brawling with his neighbours," 23 and Charles Macarthy is also mentioned in 1682, but in friendly transactions with his "neighbours." It is quite possible that this may have been the Charles McCartie who came over in 1635. Another Charles, whose surname is spelled "Mackartie," came over in 1688 with Captain Francis Page to York County as a "head right," 24 and when his term of service had expired he received an allottment of fifty acres of land. In Captain Page's list of "head rights" he also mentioned the name of "Dennis Mackartie," showing that he brought over two of the name. There is no further mention of them in the records as far as I can find.
Florence MacCarthy was a resident of York County in 1690, and since he is mentioned as "a son of Dennis MacCartie, the immigrant," that is a clear indication that the latter, while undoubtedly a native of Ireland, could not have been a descendant of either Charles or Owen who came over in 1635, and it also furnishes further proof of the fact that Dennis of Rappahannock
[page 18]could not have been the "father" (as Hayden says) of the Daniel McCarty of Westmoreland County. In 1705 Florence purchased a tract of land from one William Jordan and in 1714 another tract from John Harrison. In 1711 he served on a jury in York County and in 1717 he was appointed "Constable of the Upper Precinct of Bruton Parish." In the York books (1633-1700) at the Virginia State Library, there are at least two references to Florence MacCarthy. At a court held in York County on May 24, 1699, "fflorence Macarte hath order granted for an Attachment agt ye Estate of Mary Dyer, Adm of William Dyer of Yorke County, Deceased, in an Accon upon ye case for ye sum of one pound five shillings & a halfe penny farthing sterling by Account Returnable by ye next Court." And at a session of the court held on September 25, 1699, "fflorence MacKarte haveing brought suit agt Mary Dyer admtrix of William Dyer Deced in an Accon upon ye Case and now failing to prosecute ye suite is dismist."
The fact that Florence MacCartie married Mary Wright, daughter of Dionysius Wright, would indicate that he was a man of some importance in that section of the Colony. Dionysius Wright was a lawyer practicing in York and James City Counties, and according to the Journals of the Council of Virginia he was appointed on December 5, 1700 "Clerke of ye General Assembly," and on August 27, 1701, he was "Clerke at ye Conference (consisting of a committee of Burgesses and Councillors) to settle Indian affairs." Ann Washington, daughter of Colonel John Washington, married Frances Wright, a relative of Dionysius Wright. Florence and Mary MacCartie had issue: Florence, Dennis, Dionysius, Eleanor, Margaret, Mary and Anne. 25 In the church
[page 19]register of Bruton parish his death is recorded under "March, 1717," and his will, executed on Saint Patrick's Day in that year, was proved in court on May 19, 1718. In this will he is described as "of Bruton Parish, York County." To his son, Florence, he gave "the dwelling plantation" and 101 acres of land, with the proviso that his wife was "to have all the rights she enjoyed during her husband's lifetime." Other bequests of lands and money he left to his sons, Dennis and Dionysius; to John he left "50 pounds in money to purchase him a seate of land," and various bequests to his four daughters. He directed especially that his sons were "to be educated and brought up to schooling, that is, that they be taught to read, write and to cypher as far until they are able to work out the rule of three, all out of the profits of my estate." He signed his will "Flor MacCartie." His widow married Thomas Larke who undertook to manage the estate in the interest of the orphans, but in 1727 the court removed it from his control, charging him with "mismanagement," and thereupon "the children chose new guardians."
Dionysius MacCartie married Elizabeth Power and had a son James, who died in 1746. There was a Dr. James McCarty, a physician at Petersburg, Virginia,
[page 20]who is said to have been a son of James MacCartie, whose estate was administered in 1747 by John MacCartie. Many of the collateral descendants of the original Florence MacCartie are mentioned in the records down to and beyond the period of the Revolution, but, as to the direct line, there is very little information available. His daughter, Eleanor, married Robert Drewry, son of John Drewry who was "Commissioner of Records in York County" in 1702; Anne MacCartie, born June 25, 1706, married Peter Oliver, a planter of Hampton Parish in York County. Their son, Peter, and his wife Ann who also seems to have been a McCarty, removed to the neighborhood of Petersburg, Va., some time before the Revolution, where ten children were born to them. One of them was Rev. Florence McCarty Oliver of Elbert County, Georgia, who was born in Virginia in 1775, and his son, also Florence McCarty Oliver, was born in Georgia in 1809. He had a son named John McCarthy Oliver who settled at Lafayette, Alabama. The Olivers were a very prominent Georgia family and their genealogy shows that through the succeeding generations they preserved the McCarty name and it appears occasionally in the family down to recent years.
Perhaps the most interesting of all the pioneers of the name in America was Daniel McCarty of Westmoreland County, Virginia. There is no information available as to the exact date of his arrival in the Colony, but it is evident that it was only a short time after the signing of the Treaty of Limerick, in October 1691, and in after years he is referred to prominently as the owner of large tracts of land in Virginia. As already stated, his father was Donal, son of Donough, Earl of Clan Carthy, 26 and was an officer of the Irish army that fought
[page 21]against King William. There was a Captain Donal MacCarthy taken prisoner at the siege of Cork in 1689 by Colonel Churchill, afterwards Duke of Marlborough, but, as to his ultimate fate, the Irish records are silent, although in all probability this was the father of Daniel of Virginia. D'Alton, one of the historians of the "Williamite War," states 27 that when Lord Mountcashel was attainted in 1691 and again in 1696, "seventy-eight other Inquisitions of Outlawries were held on the MacCarthys, on whose confiscations various claims were held at Chichester House," and one of this number was Captain Donal MacCarthy.
That Daniel McCarty came from Ireland when very young is clear from the following statement by one of his descendants: 28
"Captain Daniel McCarty was exiled by the Treaty of Limerick. He was a scion of the Irish house of McCarty. His silver, which I have, is all blazoned with the shield and crest of that house, and some of it bears the date of 1620. Though the tradition is that he was the Earl of Clancarthy, it is more likely that he was the son of Mount Cashel, the head of the younger branch of the family, as the helmet on the arms is a Knight's, not an Earl's, and that his people merely considered him the Earl after the elder branch became extinct, as represented in Ireland by the younger branches, than the Colonial one."
In the "Williamite War" many of the MacCarthys, with their retainers and followers, fought against William of Orange and in Irish annals are mentioned several military officers of the name who espoused the cause of James the Second and fought at the Boyne and at
[page 22]Limerick. We are told that "the Sept of the MacCarthys furnished for the service of King James four regiments of their name, namely, the regiments of Clan Carthy, Mount-Cashel, MacCarthy Mor and MacCarthy Reagh. The greater number of the officers bore the name of the Sept and these regiments afterwards passed into the service of France and in 1695 were resolved into other regiments. Many of the MacCarthys Reagh attached themselves to the service of Spain and several of their descendants were slain in the wars of succession to the crown of the two Sicilies." 29
Once the Treaty was signed and Sarsfield, the commander at Limerick, had capitulated the English broke faith with the Irish, and, as Davis wrote in his celebrated poem on "The Battle of Fontenoy," "the Treaty broken ere the ink with which 'twas writ could dry," the Irish officers, deprived of their properties and seeing no future for them at home, prepared immediately to leave their native land forever. When the "Wild Geese" 30 fled to the Continent after the Treaty of Limerick, some of the McCarthys, broken in fortune like the sons of other noble families whose estates were confiscated to the Crown, followed King James to France and entered the service of the French King, and in the days of France's greatest military glory they received honorable mention as officers of the far-famed Irish Brigade. 31 Those of the family who remained behind in Ireland appear to have sunk into comparative inferiority and their fate thereafter was to become tenants or vassals of the new "owners" of their lands and castles.
[page 23]Why Virginia instead of France or Spain was chosen as the future home of young Daniel McCarty, is not clear, except it be that Dennis MacCarthy, who undoubtedly was a near relative, was already settled in that Colony. It is entirely unlikely that he came to this country alone and it is probable that he was accompanied on his journey by some older guardian, and as there were several relatives of his father named Donough or Dennis it is possible that the Dennis McCarty of Princess Ann County, who in 1693 was described as "old, lame and poor," was a relative of the boy Daniel and that it was they who brought the family plate to America. Of Daniel's early years in Virginia no trace can be found in the public records, although it is likely that if all the family papers were accessible some interesting information concerning him could be obtained. How or where he spent the years of his boyhood or from what source he derived the education that made him so accomplished a man as to be elected a representative to the Virginia House of Burgesses at the age of twenty-six, and ten years later Speaker of the House, is matter for interesting enquiry.
That he was possessed of large means for his time is quite evident from the extent of his property and dealings, and that he occupied a position of social distinction is attested by his being referred to in public documents as "Gentleman," "Esquire," etc., and by the standing of those with whom his name is constantly associated. The form of the name used by him invariably was "McCarty" and it is spelled usually in that way in the records, although occasionally we also find the spelling "McCarthy"; as for instance, to the will of Colonel Rodham Kenner of the Parish of St. Stephens, dated July 26, 1706, as filed in Northumberland County,
[page 24]"Daniel McCarthy" signed as one of the witnesses and the name is spelled in the same way in the record of his testimony before the court when the will was up for probate on August 21, 1706. The same form of the name was also used in the recording of a lease of a plantation dated January 24, 1746, from his son, "Daniel McCarthy," to James Carter of Washington Parish, Westmoreland County.
Captain Daniel McCarty lived on his estate in the Parish of Cople, Westmoreland County, near the Richmond boundary line, and the fact of his settling in that County to where the original immigrants, Charles and Owen, are said to have removed some years before, would seem to confirm the theory that all three were related. He seems to have been particularly fortunate in the selection of a place to establish his home. Before his death his estate extended along both sides of the Rappahannock River in Westmoreland and Richmond Counties, as well as in Stafford County, and across Westmoreland almost as far as Nomini Creek where it drops into the Potomac. It is a place to which nature has been lavish with its gifts, having a salubrious climate and rich soil, and the numerous creeks and inlets along the Potomac boundary abound with the finest fish, oysters and wild fowl. This section also has practically unlimited deposits of marl, brick and pottery clay; the cities of Washington, Baltimore and Philadelphia are built largely from bricks made of Westmoreland County clay, and there are also large quantities of pure fuller's earth, principally along the streams. The slaves on their plantations excavated these rich deposits at very little expense, and for many years the industry was carried on by the McCarty and neighboring families, in addition
[page 25]to the cultivation of tobacco which was shipped to Europe from the nearby wharves on the Potomac.
Westmoreland County is one of the oldest settled parts of Virginia and in colonial days it was the home of wealth and influence. Indeed, it is by far the most historic section of the State; many rich and aristocratic families have resided there and the County is dotted with some fine estates. Washington once called Westmoreland "the garden of America," and it has the undisputed distinction of having been the birth-place of some of the most eminent Americans, among them General Washington and others of the Washington family, Richard Henry Lee and his three brothers, Thomas, Francis and Arthur, President Monroe and General Robert E. Lee of Civil War fame.
Daniel McCarty was married twice, first in 1703 to Mrs. Sarah Payne, widow of James Payne, and second in 1715 to Ann (Lee) Fitzhugh, daughter of Richard and Laetitia Lee of Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland County, and widow of Colonel William Fitzhugh of Eagle's Nest, King George County, who died in January, 1714. 32 More than a century later (on March 30, 1817), we see a re-uniting of the McCarty and Lee families when Anne, daughter of another Daniel McCarty, married Major Henry Lee, son of that famous Revolutionary General who is familiarly known as "Light Horse Harry Lee." Major Lee served in the 12th U.S. Infantry in the war of 1812 and was private secretary to President Andrew Jackson and afterwards Secretary of the United States Legation at Paris. 33 He and his wife lived in a famous colonial mansion in Westmoreland County known as Stratford Hall, in which Richard Henry Lee, Fran-
[page 26]eis Lightfoot Lee and General Robert E. Lee were born. A strong friendship was maintained between the successive generations of these two families and one of the McCartys, Mrs. Starke, sister of Anne (McCarty) Lee, was at one time the owner of Stratford Hall and lived in it up to the time of the Civil War, and on her death she left the manor house and one thousand acres of land to her nephew, Dr. Richard Stuart, whose family are said to be the present owners of the property. 34 On August 28, 1802, Richard Stuart of Cedar Grove, King George County, married Margaret R. McCarty, widow of Daniel and mother of the Anne McCarty who married Major Lee. In later years Hancock Lee married Sarah McCarty, daughter of Colonel Daniel McCarty, and John McCarty married Ann Lucinda Lee.
Between 1705 and 1715 Daniel McCarty was one of the "Gentlemen Justices of Westmoreland County" 35 and was also for some time Sheriff of the County, and in the "official Letters of Alexander Spotswood, Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Virginia, 1710-1722," 36 there is a letter dated September 5, 1711, in connection with "Proposals humbly offered to the hon'ble Commissioners of Her Majesty's Customs for the better preventing illegal Trade in the Colony of Virginia," in which "it was recommended to the Commissioners of Customs that Captain Daniel McCarty be appointed Collector of Potomack River." In 1705 and 1706 he was one of the representatives of the County in the Virginia Assembly. Verbatim copies of the Journals of the House of Burgesses were published in several large volumes by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and these Journals show
[page 27]that on October 26, 1705, the House "Resolved that Mr. George Eskridge and Mr. Daniel McCarty are Duly Returned Burgesses to Serve in this Present General Assembly for the County of Westmoreland, 37 and in the same month Daniel McCarty was appointed one of the four members of the "Committee for Elections and Priviledges." That he took a forward part in the deliberations of the Assembly and served on several important committees during his terms of office, is seen from these Journals, and from 1705 to 1720 his name appears therein not less than 240 times.
On August 3, 1715, he was elected Speaker of the House of Burgesses, succeeding Peter Beverley, and on April 23, 1718, he was re-elected to the same important office. We are told that the session of 1715, over which Daniel McCarty presided, was "chiefly memorable for a bitter quarrel between Governor Spotswood and the House of Burgesses," 38 and the session of 1718 is also described in the preface to the printed Journals as "one of the most exciting that occurred in Virginia colonial history." In that year there was a bitter quarrel between members of the House and Governor Spotswood and in the circumstances it required much tact and good judgment on the part of the presiding officer to meet the situations that presented themselves. Usually, the Speaker of the House also was Treasurer of the Colony, but during Daniel McCarty's second term as Speaker, Beverly retained the office. McCarty seems to have been held in high esteem by his fellow members and
[page 28]on May 29, 1718, the House passed the following resolution: "That the Sume of One hundred pounds out of the money in the Treasurer's hands be paid to the Speaker as a Token of the Respect this House beares him."
In 1720 there was considerable agitation in the Northern Neck of Virginia over some features of the tobacco law, and the matter became an issue at the elections held in that year. Daniel McCarty and Thomas Lee were the nominees for the Assembly and the Sheriff declared Lee the successful candidate, but, on November 5, 1720, a "Petition of Mr. Daniel McCarty, complaining of an undue Election and Return of Thomas Lee, Gent., to serve in this present Assembly for the County of Westmoreland," was presented to the House. It was referred to the "Committee for Elections and Priviledges," and the report of the committee and the evidence presented before it occupy considerable space in the records of the Assembly. In the meantime, Lee actually sat as the representative of the County, but on the committee reporting that "the Sheriff made a false Return of the said Thomas Lee," the House directed "that the Sheriff be sent for in Custody of the Messenger to rase out of his Return the Name of Mr. Thomas Lee and instead thereof insert the Name of Mr. Daniel McCarty." On December 8th following, a resolution was passed by the House declaring "that Mr. Daniel McCarty is duly Elected a Burgess to Serve in this present General Assembly for the County of Westmoreland. 39
Virginia records subsequent to this period also show that other members of the family were active in local politics, and among those who are mentioned in the pub-
[page 29]lic records as occupants of high stations in the councils of the Colony and the State were: Dennis McCarty and Daniel McCarty (2nd), who represented Prince William and Westmoreland Counties respectively in the House of Burgesses between 1732 and 1744; Daniel McCarty (3rd), delegate to the Convention of Virginia in 1775; Charles McCarty, who represented Richmond County at an adjournment of the same body in May, 1776; Daniel McCarty (4th), representative from Westmoreland County in the House of Burgesses from 1781 to 1794, and in the Virginia Senate from 1797 to 1801 he was Senator from the three Counties of Westmoreland, Stafford and King George; Daniel McCarty (5th), who succeeded his father in the General Assembly in 1795; Colonel William McCarty of Richmond County, who was Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1799; Colonel Edward McCarty, who repesented Hampshire County in the General Assembly from 1814 to 1821; Captain John Mason McCarty, member of the House of Delegates in 1818-1819, and lastly William Mason McCarty, who served in thirteen sessions of the Virginia Senate, was Representative in Congress from Loudoun County from 1833 to 1839 and for sometime was Provisional Governor of Florida. 40
Among the memorials to certain historic figures in American history in Bruton Parish Church at Williamsburg, there is a bronze tablet commemorating seven of the Speakers of the Virginia House of Burgesses who were worshippers at this church, and one of the names inscribed thereon is that of "Daniel McCarty, 1715-18." Bruton is a church of historic associations and has held a position of unique importance in Virginia history.
[page 30]Nearby were the Governor's Palace, the College of William and Mary and the halls of the House of Burgesses, and when public celebrations were held in Colonial times, in which the government or the legislature was interested, it was customary for the Governor to attend Bruton Church surrounded by the Burgesses and officials of the Colony. Washington attended this famous church while seeking to win the heart and hand of the beautiful Martha Custis, and Patrick Henry while Governor of Virginia in 1776, Edmund Pendleton, Benjamin Harrison, Edmnund Randolph, Bland and Lee while members of the House of Burgesses, George Wythe and Signer, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Tyler, Chief Justice Marshall and many prominent figures in American history appear in the lists of its worshippers and vestrymen.
Comparatively little is known, even among his living descendants, of the career of Daniel McCarty, but the fact that this Irish exile rose to the commanding position occupied by him for several years in the society and politics of the Colony, stamps him at once as a man of rare virtues and qualifications. In the mutations of time the original possessions of the family in Westmoreland County have passed gradually into other hands, and as far as I could learn on a hurried trip through that County, there is now no trace of any person of the name in that particular part of the State, although there are several McCartys in the adjoining Counties of Lancaster and Richmond. Many of the present inhabitants of Westmoreland County are descendants of its early settlers; they have a conscious and justifiable pride in their ancestry, but few can be found among them who have any knowledge of or seem to take any interest in the career of the distinguished Irish exile, who became
[page 31]a leader among the Cavaliers of Virginia and who is mentioned so prominently in the annals of the State.
Dennis and Daniel McCarty undoubtedly were brought up Catholics in Ireland, but, like nearly all the Irish Catholic immigrants to the colonies, they were obliged to renounce the faith and conform to the established church. Cople Parish, where Daniel resided, occupied the lower part of Westmoreland County and Washington Parish the upper part. There were two Protestant Episcopal churches in Cople Parish, one at Yeocomico near Montross and the other about ten miles east, on Nomini Creek near the Potomac, and it is known that Daniel McCarty and his family attended both churches. The church in Washington Parish, which it is said the McCartys also attended occasionally, was known as Pope's Creek church. I am informed that the birth and marriage records of Yeocomico church have been destroyed and also the registers of Pope's Creek church, which were kept at Montross until about twenty years ago. The dates of the births and baptisms of Daniel McCarty's children, therefore, are not obtainable, but his will shows that four sons and four daughters survived him, and the fact that he named one of his sons Billington, indicates that he was a near relative of the Dennis and Daniel McCarty before alluded to as having married into the Billington family.
Yeocomico church was erected in the year 1706, according to the date engraved in the wall over the front door, and so well was it built that it is said by those acquainted with its history that part of the original building still remains. In the year 1906, when the parishioners celebrated the bicentennial of the founding of the church, the committee in charge published a short account of its history, and from this we learn
[page 32]that it suffered much during the war of the Revolution, having been shamefully abused by soldiers who were quartered in it, and Bishop Meade also says that "the church at Nominy was destroyed by fire during the war of 1812 and the plate belonging to it carried off by Admiral Cockburn and his party when they were on a pillaging expedition on the Potomac and its tributaries, and the house where it was kept was plundered and burned." 41
Yeocomico is as quaint as its name and its church is said to be "the only one of the old church buildings of Westmoreland County which has escaped the general wreck." It is situated near Yeocomico Creek about fourteen miles north of the town of Kinsale, established by the McCartys and other Irishmen about two and a half centuries ago. It is in the form of a cross, and situated as it is in a little recess off the main road, in the midst of large trees and surrounded by an old brick wall, it cannot fail to be an object of interest to one whose soul has any sympathy for such scenes. Bishop Meade relates that during the war of 1812 the church, which at that time was abandoned temporarily, was occupied by troops, that "the communion table was removed into the yard where it served as a butcher's block and was entirely defaced, and the baptismal font was taken some miles from the church and used as a vessel to prepare the excitements of ungodly mirth." This, however, was not long permitted, for he relates, "a worthy old man named John Murphy, mortified at the dishonor done to religion, took pains to regain it and restore it to its former place." And, "it deserves further to be mentioned," says Bishop Meade, "that whatever repairs have been put upon this house were
[page 33]at the expense of the good man mentioned above (Murphy) and a worthy gentleman from New York whose matrimonial connection in the family often brought him to this part of Virginia." 42
In Yeocomico churchyard are pointed out the graves where rest the remains of many of the early settlers of Westmoreland County. Close to the base of the east wall of the church may be seen the stone foundation of a vault which seems to be one of the oldest in this ancient graveyard, but it is now a neglected mound of earth and grass, the accumulation of nearly two centuries, with several cedar trees growing upon it and firmly rooted in the spot where the Irish exile after the Treaty of Limerick was laid to rest. Near the center of this mound is a tombstone which evidently has suffered from the ravages of time, and upon this stone, immediately under what appears to be a crude reproduction of the MacCarthy coat of arms and the motto of the family, is the following inscription, although the lettering is now almost indecipherable:
"Here lyeth the body of Daniel McCarthy who departed this life on the fourth day of May, 1724, in the 45th year of his age. He was endowed with many virtues and good qualifications, but the actions proceeding from them bespeak their praise. Here also lyeth the body of Thaddeus Mc-
[page 34]Carthy, the youngest son of Daniel McCarty, Esqr. who departed this life the 7th of February, 1731, in the 19th year of his age. Near this place likewise is the body of Penelope, wife to Daniel McCarthy, second son of Daniel McCarty, Esqr. and daughter to Christine Higgins, Gent. who departed this life the 26th of March, 1732, in the 19th year of her age with one child." 43
Apparently, the first lands he owned were acquired by purchase from John Glendenning and his wife, as appears from a deed dated March 27, 1697, recorded in Richmond County. When examining the records of Patents at the Virginia Land office, the earliest entry I could find covering a grant to Daniel McCarty is March 11, 1703, on which date "Marguritte, Lady Culpeper, Thomas, Lord Fairfax, and Catherine, his wife, Proprietors of ye Northern Neck of Virginia," Conveyed to Daniel McCarty and Daniel Tebbs 1350 acres of land, described as "on ye East side of ye mouth of Mackotique River and extending along Potomack River East by North," 44 etc. These lands were situated in Westmoreland County and were patented originally by one Richard Cole on November 18, 1650, but as Cole and his wife died without heirs or legally disposing of their property, the land was escheated. In the patent to McCarty and Tebbs the proprietors reserved for themselves "all Royall mines" and one-third part of all minerals found on the land, and it provided for "a fee rent of one shilling sterling money for each fifty acres of land hereby granted, to be paid on the feast day of Saint Michael the Archangel." 45 In fact, all deeds from
[page 35]the proprietors at this time and for many years thereafter contained this provision.
In a grant from the proprietors dated January 28, 1707, they conveyed to Daniel McCarty certain other lands in Westmoreland County, which he "surveyed by virtue of a warrant from the Proprietors, dated July 3, 1706," and in this document he is styled for the first time "Captain" Daniel McCarty, and the patent contained the usual reservations as to "royall mines," minerals and fee rent. 46 He received another grant on February 2, 1709, of 2993 acres "above the Falls of Potowmack River, beginning on said River side at the lower end of the Sugar Land Island opposite to the upper part of the rocks in said River." 47 By deed dated December 19, 1716, "the Right Honble Catherine, Lady Fairfax, Sole Proprietor of the Northern Neck of Virginia," conveyed to Captain Daniel McCarty 648 acres situated "on the south side of the main run of Accotinck Creek in Stafford County, as surveyed by Simon Connell on September 26, 1714," but which he (Connell) had "allowed to lapse through noncomplyance with the rules of the Proprietor's Office." 48 This tract fell into Fairfax County when that County was formed from Stafford and was adjacent to the property of the Washingtons. Again by deed dated December 5, 1722, Lord Fairfax conveyed other lands in Cople Parish to Daniel McCarty. 49
These grants by no means cover all of Daniel McCarty's landed property, and the number of deeds and conveyances recorded in Virginia between 1697 and the
[page 36]year of his death covering transfers of real estate in Richmond County to and from Daniel McCarty, alone are sufficient to indicate the extent of his holdings. Among the legal instruments recorded in the office of the County Clerk at Warsaw, Va., are the following deeds for lands in that County:---
|1697, March 27||John Glendenning & wife||Daniel McCarty|
|1698, June 15||Daniel McCarty||Simon Tomasin|
|1704, August 25||Samuel Samford|
|1706, April 2||( Philip Rogers|
< Vincent Cox
|1706, April 2||John Sabre & wife||Daniel McCarty|
|1707, October 1||( John Davis, Sr.|
< John Davis, Jr.
|1707, October 2||SAME||Daniel McCarty|
|1708, July 7||( Charles Barber|
< George Glascock
|1714, January 4||Webley Pavey||Daniel McCarty|
|1714, August 31||SAME||Daniel McCarty|
|1714, November 30||Benjamin Hinds & wife||Daniel McCarty|
|1717, May 2||Robert Baylis & wife||Daniel McCarty|
|1717, June 5||Samuel Randal & wife||Daniel McCarty|
|1719, May 5||William Fauntleroy||Daniel McCarty|
|1719, July 13||Robert Baylis & wife||Daniel McCarty|
[page 37]disposed of a large estate in lands, houses, slaves, jewelry and plate of great value, and he named among the legatees his sons, Dennis, Daniel, Billington and Thaddeus, and daughters, Winifred, Sarah, Lettice and Anna Barbara, the last-mentioned having been the wife of one of his executors, John Fitzhugh of Stafford County. To his eldest son, Dennis, he gave his personal property including the family plate brought from Ireland, the "home plantation" and other real estate in Stafford and all his "debts in that County"; to Daniel he gave lands in Westmoreland County; to Billington his land at Farnham Creek in Richmond County; to Thaddeus his land at Mangorite in Richmond County; "which was Captain John Rice's." This was the John Rice of Dingle, County Kerry, already mentioned. To his daughters he left cash bequests of 500 pounds each. The will is a very long document and is couched in all the extravagant phraseology of the day. It shows this exiled Irishman to have been a man of fine characteristics, as witness the fact that he directed his sons "to be educated, one a lawyer, one a divine, one a physician, one a chirurgeon or mariner in the Secretaries' office, or to any lawful employment as their inclination leads them, but rather to the ax and hoe than suffered in idleness and extravagancy."
It is strange that there is so little mention of this pioneer Irishman in Virginia history. Nor is ther any place in the State called after him or any of his numerous descendants; yet he occupied a prominent place in the society of the Colony and his children married into some of the leading families of the day. The only places where any mention of his name can be found are in the official records of the Colony, in the land and court records of the day, in the birth, marriage and
[page 38]death registers of the districts where he and his family resided, and in the genealogies of the families with whom the McCartys intermarried. But, as for giving him a place in history, the historians are peculiarly silent!
The will of Mrs. Ann McCarty, widow of Daniel, dated November 7, 1728, and probated in Westmoreland County on May 3, 1732, named several members of the Fitzhugh family, as well as Thaddeus and Billington McCarty, as sharing in the bequests. She died in the year 1732.
The estate of Daniel McCarty was the subject of two actions in Chancery in the Courts of Virginia, "for the accounting of a trust estate," one styled "McCarty vs. McCarty's Executors" and the other "McCarty vs. Fitzhugh," Daniel McCarty having been the plaintiff in both suits, and the papers in the second case describe him as "a lawyer." Complete descriptions of these lawsuits with the decisions of the Judge may be found in the "Decisions of the General Court of Virginia" edited by Robert T. Barton. 53
[page 39]CHAPTER II
THE MC CARTYS OF VIRGINIA (continued)
The descendants of Daniel, the Speaker--Romantic marriage of Dennis McCarty and Sarah Ball--Their children were cousins of George Washington--Thaddeus McCarty married in Washington's home--Colonel Daniel McCarty, the "well-beloved friend" of Augustine Washington and executor of his will-- Associated with eminent Virginians--George Washington's Diary frequently mentions the McCartys--Correspondence between Washington and Daniel McCarty--The McCarty family invited to attend the funeral of Washington--Eleven McCartys members of the Virginia legislature since 1705.Dennis, eldest son of Captain Daniel McCarty, inheritated the "home plantation" in Westmoreland County as well as his father's lands in Stafford County. In the land office at Richmond there is a deed recorded on March 25, 1727, from Lord Fairfax, whereby he conveyed to Dennis McCarty 522 acres of land "upon the upper side of Accotink Creek in Stafford County," 1 and another as of February 20, 1729, from Lord Fairfax to "Dennis MacCarty of the County of Stafford, Gent.," conveying to him a tract of land on the north side of Pohick Run, 2 and in both deeds the boundary lines on three sides are described as McCarty's own lands. In 1724 Dennis married Sarah Ball of the noted Virginia family of that name who lived at Ball's Creek in Lancaster County. In the marriage register at Lancaster court house there is a letter dated September 21, 1724, from William Ball to Thomas Edwards, Clerk of Lancaster County, asking "for a license for mar-
[page 40]riage between Mr. Dennis McCarty of Copeland Parish, Westmoreland County, and my daughter, Sarah Ball," and the marriage was solemnized in Cople Parish church on the day following the issuance of the license. The Balls are referred to by Virginia historians as "one of the best families in Virginia" and tradition says that Sarah was "a girl of acknowledged charm," and, that Dennis McCarty must have been a young man of highly polished manners and areeable personality, is apparent from the fact that he was acceptable to "the old Cavalier, William Ball," as a suitor for the hand of his daughter in marriage.
Sarah Ball's youthful charms must have created havoc in more than one susceptible heart. There is a romantic story told in the family how another aspirant for the hand of the fair Sarah, mortified at his failure, made use of some derogatory remarks concerning his more fortunate rival; how Dennis McCarty came down to Lancaster and threatened to chastise the rash youth in public in front of the courthouse, it being during a term of court, one of the few occasions when the people of the County assembled in any numbers; how, on his rival tendering him an apology, he graciously invited him to attend the wedding. As the story goes, the occasion was "one of the events of the season" in those parts, and, that Dennis and his friends made the most of it, we may judge when we are told that they drove to Ball's Creek in a large coach drawn by six splendid black horses, with grooms and lackeys as outriders, and returned with the bride and bridesmaids to Cople Parish church, where the ceremony was performed, after which days were spent in festivity and rejoicing and hunting parties formed by the gay young bloods of the neighborhood.
[page 41]This union resulted in a most intersting and historic relationship between the Washington, Ball and McCarty families. According to the genealogy of the Ball family, Sarah was born in Westmoreland County "between 1700 and 1705" and was a granddaughter of William Ball, an immigrant to Virginia in the year 1650. This William Ball had two sons, William and Joseph. William Jr. was the father of Sarah Ball and Joseph was the father of Mary Ball. As already stated, Sarah Ball became the wife of Dennis McCarty and had three sons, Daniel, Thaddeus and Dennis, and two daughters, Anne and Sarah McCarty. Sarah Ball's first cousin, Mary Ball, married Augustine Washington on March 6, 1730, and to this union was born the illustrious "Father of his Country"; so that Daniel, Thaddeus, Dennis, Anne and Sarah McCarty, grandchildren of the Irish exile, Daniel McCarty, enjoyed the rare distinction of having been second cousins of the immortal Washington! That the friendship between the Washington and McCarty families, which had been of long standing, was firmly cemented by this interesting union, is indicated by an account of the marriage of April 20, 1768, of Sarah Richardson and Thaddeus, nephew of the above-named Dennis, which appears in William and Mary College Quarterly. 3 This account says: "According to tradition, the marriage ceremony took place in the home of George Washington, who was related to the McCartys through the Balls."
In the year 1730 the present Prince William County was formed from Stafford and we find the name of Major Dennis McCarty recorded as a Justice of the new County in 1731. In the same year he was elected a representative to the House of Burgesses from Prince
[page 42]William County, serving until 1734. His attendance at the sessions of the House seems to have been intermittent, and the records of the Assembly show that on June 27, 1732, the House "ordered that Mr. Dennis McCarty have Leave to go Home for Recovery of his Health," and a similar resolution was passed on September 28, 1734. Two years later he was defeated for reelection, but he contested the seat and on September 17, 1736, "A Petition of Mr. Dennis McCarty was presented to the House and read, complaining of an undue Election and Return of Mr. Peter Hedgman to serve as Burgess in this present General Assembly for the County of Prince William." 4 It was a long document detailing alleged "undue practices" of his opponent and friends, which prevented many of the freeholders of the County from voting for McCarty, and the latter declared that in any event he had "the greater Number of Legal Voters upon the Poll." The controversy continued for two years, but on November 9, 1738, Dennis McCarty was granted "leave to withdraw his petition" and thereupon Peter Hedgman was declared duly elected. Another "petition of Dennis McCarty" also appears in the records of the General Assembly of November 6, 1738. It prayed "that Leave may be given to bring in a Bill to dock the Entail of Five Hundred acres of Land in the Parish of Lunenburg in the County of Richmond, and for settling other Lands of greater value in the County of Prince William to the same Uses," but on November 27 of the same year McCarty withdrew his petition.
In 1741 Prince William County was divided and the eastern part of the County became known as Fairfax. Dennis McCarty's homestead was situated on Pohick
[page 43]River in what is now Fairfax County and that of his brother, Daniel, was at Cedar Grove in the same County about fourteen miles below Alexandria, where the Pohick and Accotink Creeks pour their waters into the Potomac. Daniel's lands adjoined the estate of the Washingtons whose home at Mount Vernon between 1735 and 1739 was about five miles west of that of Daniel McCarty. The famous Truro Parish is in this vicinity and all of these families and the gentry from the surrounding neighborhood are recorded among the worshippers at old Pohick church in Truro Parish, which was one mile south of Pohick Run until 1772, when a new site was selected about a mile north of the Run. Augustine, Lawrence and George Washington, Dennis and Daniel McCarty and other prominent men of Prince William, Fairfax and Stafford Counties served as Vestrymen of the parish at various times, and indeed the very first name which appears in the parish book as vestryman between 1732 and 1741 is that of Dennis McCarty. Augustine Washinton was sworn in as vestryman of the parish on November 18, 1735.
The Vestry Book opens with a reference to the Act of the General Assembly instituting the parish, the election of the vestry and the proceedings at its first meeting. The Act prescribed that the sheriff of the County should summon the freeholders and housekeepers and elect so many of "the most able and discreet persons in said parish as shall make up the number of Vestrymen in the said parish twelve and no more," and at its initial meeting on November 7, 1732, Dennis McCarty, Charles Broadwater, Richard Osborn, John Lewis, Gabriel Adams, Edward Emms, John Heryford and Edward Barry were elected. Barry was nominated for Clerk and served in that capacity for several years
[page 44]and in 1743 his brother John Berry, was elected Clerk and served until 1775. It is also of interest to note, as showing there were other early Irish settlers in this locality, that when searching for the names of those who appear in the public records of this section, I found the name of Dennis McCarty listed in a "Poll for the Election of Burgesses for the County of Prince William. A.D. 1741," and among his fellow-voters and freeholders were:
In the History of Truro Parish, by the noted historiographer of the Church in Virginia, Rev. Philip Slaughter, it is said that "the first regular rector of Truro Parish" was Rev. Charles Green who was appointed by the Vestry on August 13, 1737. Dr. Slaughter describes him as "a Doctor of Medicine before he took Orders and appears to have practiced to some extent afterwards, and on at least one occasion he was called in at Mount Vernon and prescribed for the relief of Mrs. Washington. He was a large landowner and his deeds, in which he is described as 'Doctor of Physic and Clerk of Truro Parish,' are of frequent occurrence in the land records of the County. In his will, probated August 19, 1765, he left 3000 acres of land in Fairfax, Prince William and Loudoun Counties to his wife. He also mentioned certain relatives in Ireland and advised his wife to re-
[page 45]turn to that country, from which it is supposed that he was an Irishman."
Dennis McCarty's will, dated March 18, 1742, was probated in Prince William County on January 20, 1743. He named his brother, Daniel, John Miner and his son, Daniel, his executors. He died in 1744. The second son of Captain Daniel was Colonel Daniel McCarty who married Penelope Higgins. He lived for a time in Cople Parish, Westmoreland County, in the immediate vicinity of the birthplace and residence of Augustine and George Washington, until he established his residence at Cedar Grove, and all three families sometimes attended Pope's Creek Church in Washington Township and were on terms of intimate friendship for many years. Colonel McCarty was the lawyer before referred to and his name appears in the Journals of the House of Burgesses between 1727 and 1736 as one of the representatives of Westmoreland County. In the election of 1734 his opponent contested the seat, and the "Petition of William Aylett complaining of an undue Election and Return of Mr. Daniel McCarty to serve as a Burgess for the County of Westmoreland," was read in the House on September 4, 1734, but two weeks later the House resolved: "that Mr. Daniel McCarty is hereby elected and returned a Burgess to serve in this present General Assembly for the County of Westmoreland." His name is mentioned frequently in the transactions of the legislature as showing that he was a very active member and during the session of 1735 he was the "father" of several bills.
Colonel McCarty was made Collector of Potomac in 1733 and his name appears in the Council Journals on November 7, 1738, as receiving a commission as a Justice of Westmoreland County, and in 1743 he was "Director
[page 46]of Leedstown in King George County." He took his seat for the last time as a representative in the General Assembly on August 15, 1736, and was reelected in 1742, but during the interval between the prorogation of the Assembly in that year and its summons to reconvene in September, 1744, Colonel McCarty died and George Lee was recorded as "seated in place of Daniel McCarty, deceased." 5 In his will, dated May 16, 1743, he named as legatees his brothers, Dennis and Billington, and as executors he named his "well-beloved friends, Colonel Presley Thornton, Joseph Morton, Augustine Washington and Lawrence Butler, Gents." This Lawrence Butler was a brother of Anne Butler, the first wife of Augustine Washington whom he married in the year 1715. She died in 1728. The Butlers were descended from the Butlers of Kilkenny, one of the most eminent of the Anglo-Norman families of Ireland. 6 Colonel McCarty and Augustine Washington, father of the illustrious First President of the United States, passed away in the year 1743 within a few months of each other. In his will Augustine Washington described himself as "of Washington Parish, Westmoreland County," and as an evidence of the esteem in which he held his "good friend" Daniel McCarty, he appointed him one of the executors of his estate. The closing paragraph of the will of Augustine Washington 7 reads as follows:
[page 47]"Lastly, I constitute and appoint my son, Lawrence Washington, and my good Friends, Daniel McCarty and Nathaniel Chapman, Gents., Executors of this my Last Will and Testament. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand & Seal the Eleventh day of April, 1743.
These two wills, made within a period of little more than a month, furnish additional evidence of the mutual interest and affection which existed between these families and it may be remarked in passing that if Daniel McCarty had not borne such an ancient Irish name, it is probable that readers of American history would have been made acquainted with some of the details of the career of the "well-beloved friend" of the immortal "Father of his County"! Another circumstance of no little interest is, the fact that toward the close of Augustine Washington's life a question arose between him and his brother, John, concerning the boundary between the estates bequeathed them by their father in Westmoreland County. The brothers agreed to submit the matter to Daniel McCarty and Richard Bernard, entering into bonds of 1000 pounds each to abide by the decision of the referees, and this decision, duly signed and sealed by the brothers, was admitted to record in Westmoreland County on April 12, 1743, the very day on which Augustine Washington died at his home near Fredericksburg. 8
Thaddeus, youngest son of Captain Daniel McCarty, died on February 7, 1731, and although only nineteen years of age he was possessed of a considerable estate. The inventory filed in Richmond County under date of May 3, 1732, consisted of a great variety of personal
[page 48]property in which were included nine negro slaves and "one white servant man," and there is one curiosity about it, namely, that unlike nearly all other known inventories of the time, it fixed the value of a white servant at 10 pounds.
Billington McCarty, third son of Captain Daniel, married Ann Barber at Farnham Parish church on June 16, 1732, and had four sons, Daniel, born October 22, 1733; Billington, born October 3, 1736; Thaddeus, born April 1, 1739, and Charles, born August 3, 1741. The date of his death is unknown, but his will is on record at the office of the County Clerk for Richmond County at Warsaw, VA., as of July 1, 1745. It mentions his wife and children, but names only his son, Billington, among the legatees. The latter married Elizabeth Downman in October, 1756, and according to the records had issue: Daniel, born August 24, 1757; Billington, March 18, 1759; Thaddeus, September 1, 1763, and Elizabeth, born November 30, 1768. He died in April, 1771, and his will which was recorded in Richmond County on May 6 of that year shows that he was the father of three other children, namely Dennis, William and Nancy. He named his wife, Elizabeth, and his brothers, Thaddeus and Charles, joint executors of his estate and he divided his property into fourteen equal parts which he bequeathed to his wife and children. One of his sons, Colonel William McCarty, was a member of the Virginia Assembly; his son, Dennis, married Elizabeth Woodbridge Yerby and his daughter, Elizabeth, married into the Downman family. Billington's brother, Charles, was the Charles who represented Richmond County in the Revolutionary Convention of Virginia in 1776. There is a record of his will, dated November 11, 1784, at Warsaw, showing that he divided
[page 49]his estate among his wife, Winney, sons Bartholomew and Charles Travers, and daughters Fannie, Winney and Bettie Ann. Charles Travers McCarty married Apphia Fauntleroy of the famous Virginia family of that name.
The issue of Dennis and Elizabeth McCarty were: William Downman, George Yerby, Albert G., and Juliet Ann McCarty. William Downman McCarty was a Captain of the United States Navy in the War of 1812 and was one of the gallant men who served on board the Constitution in her conflict with the English warship, Guerriere, on August 19, 1812. For his gallantry during that engagement, the United States and the State of Virginia each presented him with a gold-mounted sword, since in the possession of his grandson, Benjamin Franklin McCarty, of Lancaster County. Captain McCarty married Frances Ravenscroft Ball, great granddaughter of Joseph Ball, already referred to as George Washington's grandfather. They left two sons, Captain James Ball and Ovid Downman, and four daughters, Cordelia Ball, Juliet, Virginia and Lavinia McCarty. Captain James Ball McCarty married Lavinia Carter, great-granddaughter of King Carter of Lancaster County; Ovid Downman McCarty married Martha Hill, daughter of Colonel William Hill of Richmond; Cordelia Ball McCarty married (1st) Bartholemew Carter Chinn, and (2nd) Oscar Yerby; Juliet McCarty married Barton Ball of Lancaster County; Virginia McCarty married William Beale McCarty of Woodford, Va., and Lavinia McCarty married Littleton D. Mitchell of Lancaster County, Va.
Anna Barbara McCarty, eldest daughter of Captain Daniel, married Major John Fitzhugh, son of William Fitzhugh, a noted man of Marmion, Stafford County,
[page 50]in 1719. They had three sons, Daniel McCarty, John and William, and four daughters, Sarah, Elizabeth, Barbara and Rosamond. Lettice McCarty married George Turberville and Sarah McCarty married Thomas Beale at Farnham Parish church on April 27, 1728, but of Winnifred, the other daughter of Captain Daniel, I am unable to find any record and it is probable she died young. A further illustration of the difficulties of identifying the numerous descendants of the original MacCarthys in Virginia is furnished to us by the genealogy of the Fitzhugh family. One of the sons of John Fitzhugh and his wife, Anna Barbara McCarty, born June 28, 1733, was named Daniel McCarty Fitzhugh. William Fitzhugh, brother of John, married Ursula Beverley and one of their sons, born March 15, 1758, was also named Daniel McCarty Fitzhugh. John Fitzhugh, son of the first named John, married Alice Thornton and they had a son, born May 9, 1763, whom they named Daniel McCarty Fitzhugh. All three Daniels lived in Stafford County, and since their names are mentioned in the records, in several instances about the same period, and all three were known to their intimates as "McCarty," it will be seen what a perfect puzzle it becomes to determine "which is which"!
Daniel, the eldest son of Major Dennis and Sarah (Ball) McCarty, is referred to frequently in Virginia records as "Colonel Daniel McCarty" and, next to his grandfather, the Speaker, he seems to have been the best-known member of the family and tradition speaks of him as one of the notably representative Virginians of his time. One of his descendants informs me that "at one time he went to England and was received at the Court of St. James by his proper title, Earl of Desmond." As there is no mention of this incident
[page 51]the colonial records of Virginia, it is apparent that his visit to London was not in an official capacity, and since he was interested largely in the cultivation and exportation of tobacco, it is probable that his journey was in connection with this business. He inherited portion of his father's estate in Fairfax and Stafford counties and his home plantation and dwelling was known as "Mount Airy." In June, 1748, he married Sinah Ball, by whom he had Daniel, Sarah, Mary, Sinah and Anne, and it is said that these four girls attracted much attention among the gallant young men of Virginia for their captivating manners, cleverness and beauty. Sarah married Colonel Richard Chichester; Mary died unmarried; Sinah became the wife of Richard Waggoner and Anne married a McClanahan, who doubtless was a descendant of the McClanahan who came to Virginia with the Irish colonists who founded the town of Kinsale about the year 1662.
Besides the property he had inherited from his father, Daniel McCarty (3rd) owned lands in Nomini, purchased from Major John Thornton which by his will, dated January 17, 1783, he bequeathed to his son, Daniel (4th) and his daughter, Elizabeth, who, on January 10, 1788, became the wife of Burwell Bassett of New Kent County, a member of Congress for many years. The name of Daniel McCarty (3rd) appears in lists of students at William and Mary College in 1756 and in 1767 he succeeded to the position held by his father, Collector of Lower Potomac. His son, Daniel (4th), who lived at Pope's Creek, married Margaret Robinson in 1795 and died in 1801, and in the next year his widow married Dr. Richard Stuart of Cedar Grove. As already stated, the Washington and McCarty families worshipped at old Pohick church in Truro Parish and Bishop
[page 52]Meade says that the pew, with a brass plate bearing the name, "Colonel Daniel McCarty," which for many years was occupied by the McCarty family, and which was immediately behind that of the Washingtons' on the opposite side of the aisle, was still preserved at the time he was preparing his history of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Virginia. Evidently, the location of a family pew was regarded as a matter of some importance in those days, and Bishop Meade quotes an interesting document illustrating this which he found among the records of old Pohick church. It is a deed dated February 24, 1774, conveying to "Daniel McCarty of Truro Parish, Fairfax County, Gentleman," and his heirs the perpetual ownership of pew number 14 which he had purchased on November 20, 1772, and its position in the church is as carefully and accurately described as if it were a tract of land that was being conveyed, rather than the right to the occupancy of a pew by McCarty and his family. The consideration was the sum of 15 pounds, 10 schillings, and George Washington was one of the vestrymen who executed the deed and John Barry was one of the witnesses. 9
The Vestry Book of Truro Parish is a rich storehouse of historic names and among its vestrymen for twentytwo years was George Washington, having been chosen for the first time on October 25, 1762, and "qualified at a Court held for Fairfax County on February 15, 1763." 10 Colonel Daniel McCarty was a vestryman of the Parish for thirty-six years, having been elected first in 1748 and serving continuously until 1784, and both names appear frequently in the records of the church. His election and that of his fellow-vestrymen in 1748
[page 53]was thus referred to by the famous William Fairfax in a letter dated August 15, 1749, to Lawrence Washington, then in England: 11 "Our Principal Occurrence in this County Since your Departure has been the Election of our Vestry, a copy of which is enclosed." The enclosure was a list of the successful and defeated candidates in the handwriting of George Washington, and among the names of the twelve vestrymen elected was that of Daniel McCarty. Moncure D. Conway, in commenting on the individuals included in Washington's list, says: "The McCartys and Bronaughs were connected with the Mason family and were men of great influence." 12 It might appear as if Colonel McCarty was a builder and contractor, since the Vestry Book shows that at a meeting held on February 19, 1749, it was voted to erect an addition to the church, and an entry in the record of that date reads: Captain Daniel McCarty undertakes this work for 5500 pounds of tobacco, he also having the material in the old Vestry House to make what use of he can in building the new."
The parish meetings were supposed to be held in the church edifice, but the records show that they were held occasionally at the home of one or other of the vestrymen and that they lasted sometimes for two or three days. Doubtless, these occasions were largely turned into social gatherings, since their attendance often involved a ride on horseback for a considerable distance, depending at whose house the meeting was held, and we may depend upon it that much was discussed at these meetings other than the mere local business of the parish. The vestrymen and wardens of those days were important people and only men of prominence in County affairs were
[page 54]chosen for such positions, since they were not only officials of the parish but also of the State, and one of the functions of government devolving on the vestrymen and wardens was the levying of taxes for the support of the poor and the appointment every fourth year of commissioners to view all boundary lines of land grants and claims, to arbitrate disputes and to see that the shooting and range laws were complied with. The meeting of the Vestry for Truro Parish held in November, 1765, lasted three days and was held at the home of Daniel McCarty, and the record shows that there were present on that occasion "Mr Edw Payne, Col. Geo Washington, Capt Posey, Capt Daniel McCarty, Col Geo William Fairfax, Mr. Thomas Ford and Mr. Alex Henderson."
The Vestry Book attests the regularity with which Washington attended the meetings and the interest he took in the affairs of the parish. There were two churches in Truro Parish, Pohick and Old Falls church, the latter called after the falls of the Potomac. Washington and McCarty were also vestrymen of Old Falls church, as is seen from an entry in the record dated March 28, 1763, on which date both were present at a meeting in the capacity of vestrymen. At a meeting of the Vestry held on February 3, 1766, relating to a new church building, it was "Ordered that Colonel George Washington, Captain Daniel McCarty, Colonel George William Fairfax, Mr. Alexander Henderson and Mr. Thomas Ford or any three of them do view and admire the said building from time to time as shall be requisite." Washington continued an active and untiring member of the Vestry of Truro Parish until the outbreak of the Revolution. Among his original papers at the Library of Congress I find a letter to him from
[page 55]Daniel McCarty dated February 22, 1784. It is an unusually fine specimen of penmanship for the time and its purpose was to notify Washington that "Tomorrow is appointed for us to have a Vestry; the place of meeting is to be at William Lindsay's in Colchester by 11 o'clock; it was attempted five or six times last fall, but you and Mr. Henderson's both being out of the country we never could get a sufficient Number of Gentlemen to meet to make a Vestry, by which means the poor suffers very much and some of them must inevitably perish without they can have some assistance. I must therefore beg your attendance. Mrs. McCarty and family join me in our best respects to you and your worthy Lady and I am with the greatest esteem
But, Washington at this time had decided to retire and he replied to the above letter on February 23rd. tendering his resignation, and on that date the following entry was made in the parish book: "John Gibson, Gent. is elected a Vestryman of this Parish in the room of His Excellency General Washington, who has signified his resignation in a letter to Daniel McCarty, Gent." At the same meeting Daniel McCarty himself tendered his resignation and Lund Washington was elected in his place. He died at his home at Cedar Grove, Fairfax County, in 1791. His only son, Daniel McCarty, Junior, was elected a Vestryman of the Parish on December 8, 1779.
Thaddeus, second son of Major Dennis and Sarah (Ball) McCarty, was born on April 1, 1739, and the records of Lancaster County show that on May 19, 1758,
[page 56]he received a license to marry Ann Chinn, daughter of Rawleigh Chinn of an old Virginia family, and on October 8, 1773, both are on record as disposing of lands in Loudoun County which Ann (Chinn) McCarty had inherited from her father. He is referred to in Virginia records as Colonel Thaddeus. According to Hayden, he was a Vestryman of St. Mary's Parish, Lancaster County, from 1761 to 1776, Church Warden from 1771 to 1776, Clerk of the County from 1778 to 1781 and was one of the Lancaster County Revolutionary Committee of Correspondence chosen on February 6, 1775. He fought in the Revolutionary war. He had one son whom he named Thaddeus, born in Loudoun County in 1760. Thaddeus, Jr., had seven children, each of whom lived on a separate estate; all married and brought up families and their descendants are now scattered through Kansas, Texas, Virginia and Mississippi. One of his sons, George Washington McCarty, owned Newington, a large estate with a fine stone mansion, overlooking the Little River near Middleburg, in Loudoun County, near the county seat of James Monroe, President of the United States, and when Lafayette and John Quincy Adams went to Leesburg on August 9, 1825, on a visit to President Monroe, they were entertained by the McCarty family at their fine home. George Washington McCarty was a wealthy farmer, owning many slaves. His son, William Thaddeus, married Hannah Fox, daughter of Captain John Fox of Prince William County, descended from Charles James Fox, the English statesman. One of his grandsons was Captain William Thaddeus McCarty, who, when a student at the University of Virginia at the outbreak of the Civil War, organized the celebrated company known as the "University Volunteers," which became part of General Henry A.
[page 57]Wise's Brigade. Captain McCarty commanded a Confederate artillery company at the battle of Gettysburg, and two of the sons of Stephen Washington McCarty also served as officers of the Confederate army and one of them was killed at the first battle of Manassas.
Ann, daughter of Major Dennis and Sarah (Ball) McCarty, married William Ramsay of Alexandria, Va., and had two sons, Dennis and William McCarty Ramsay. Dennis was a Captain and William a Surgeon in the Revolutionary army. Dennis Ramsay married Jane Allen Taylor, daughter of a merchant of Belfast, Ireland, and was Mayor of Alexandria in 1793, and "it was he who prepared the stirring address to Washington on April 16, 1789, on behalf of the people of Alexandria." 13 Sarah, daughter of Dennis and Sarah McCarty, married George Johnson, of Alexandria, one of the most eminent lawyers of his day in Virginia, member of the House of Burgesses from 1758 to 1766, author of the Stamp Act Resolutions which Patrick Henry offered to the House and which Johnson seconded in a powerful speech on May 30, 1765. He was also chosen one of the Council of Alexandria on July 18, 1752, to succeed Lawrence Washington. Their son, George, was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Continental army, Aide-deCamp to Washington and his confidential military secretary from December, 1776, until his death at Morristown, N. J., in June, 1777. 14
Dennis, third son of Major Dennis and Sarah (Ball) McCarty, served as an officer in the colonial wars, and when Washington made his famous journey in the Fall of 1753 from Williamsburg to the shores of Lake Erie as the envoy of the government of Virginia to the com-
[page 58]mander of the French forces with a demand that the French desist from their inroads upon the settlements on the Ohio, his cousin, young Dennis McCarty, was one of the few personal friends who accompanied him. At the State Land Office I found a record of three deeds from Lord Fairfax, one dated December 15, 1740, conveying to Dennis McCarty a tract of 1140 acres described as "on the branches of Little River and branches of Goose Creek," 15 in Prince William County, and two deeds dated December 16, 1740, one conveying to Dennis McCarty 1235 acres "upon Stallion Branch, being a branch of the Broad Run of the Potomack," 16 and the other to Thaddeus McCarty for 1220 acres "on the south side of Goose Creek in Prince William County." 17 From the fact that the grantee in the first two deeds is referred to therein as "Dennis McCarty, the Younger, son of Major Dennis McCarty of the County of Prince William," it is clear that he was the son of Dennis and Sarah (Ball) McCarty. Yet, he was only fifteen years old at the time these deeds were executed, and as to Thaddeus, the grantee of the 1220 acre tract, I am unable to place him at all, since only three Thaddeus McCartys appear in the early birth records, one of whom died in 1731 and the other two were only one year old at the time the above-mentioned land grant was made. This indicates that there were other McCartys in this section of Virginia besides those mentioned in this book.
In 1755, after Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne, Colonel Dunbar of the British army became senior officer in command of the colonial troops, but on Dunbar's removal from that post Colonel George Washington was
[page 59]appointed to his place, and the person whom Washington dispatched to Winchester to acquaint Colonel Fairfax with this news was his young Lieutenant, Dennis McCarty. In the papers of Colonel George William Fairfax there is a letter from him to Governor Dinwiddie, dated "Winchester, September 4th, 1755," which begins thus: "This instant Mr. Dennis McCarty came here and gave me the agreeable news of Colonel Dunbar's being ordered back and that my friend Colonel Washington is to have command of the forces raised by this Colony, which undoubtedly is a great trust, but I dare say he will discharge it with honour." 18
In the "Dinwiddie Papers" we read some interesting references to Lieutenant, afterwards Captain, Dennis McCarty, who served under Washington in the border warfare in Virginia, and in these papers he is referred to as "a gallant frontiersman." In a letter from Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, dated Alexandria, January 13, 1756, relative to an expedition against the Shawnee Indians, Washington asked for approval for the appointment of Dennis McCarty to a vacancy as Lieutenant in his regiment. The Governor approved the appointment in a letter to Washington on January 23, 1756; but, McCarty's political opponents in the County having brought a charge against him of "endeavoring to persuade the Men in the Virginia Regiment to desert" in order that he (McCarty) "May have the Opp't'y of enlisting 'em," the Governor canceled his commission in a letter to McCarty on December 10, 1756. There is a letter of the same date from the Governor to Washington, referring to "the villainy of McCarty," which "is without precedent," and in a letter to Colonel Fair-
[page 60]fax five days later the Governor said: "Dennis McCarty has behaved very basely in getting some of our forces to desert in order that he might enlist 'em, which occasioned my recalling the Com's'on I gave him to recruit the Royal Amn's. I can't with patience writhe him; therefore as he writes me he has recruited 24 men I do not incline he should suffer in that service, and if you'll take the trouble to give him notice if he'll send 'em down to this Place, on rec't of 'em I'll pay him any reasonable Acco't he may produce for enlisting and maintaining of 'em." Later, this political "tempest in a teapot" subsided, and on December 23, 1756, Governor Dinwiddie wrote McCarty, saying "I shall be glad if you come here and desire you to march down with the recruits you have to join the others here." 19
As already stated, a strong friendship existed between the Washington and McCarty families, and indeed it is clear that they maintained the most intimate social relations, since the McCartys were frequent and welcome visitors at the Washington home. The various letters passing between them, as well as the entries made by Washington in his Diary, fully attest that fact. At the Library of Congress I have examined the original Diary and letters to Washington, and find in them many interesting references to the McCartys. Among the entries in the Diary the earliest appears under date of February 24, 1760, and reads thus: "Calld and dind at Captn McCartys in my way home and left the Order of Court appointing him and others appraisers of Nation's Estate (which I had sent my Boy down for) and at the same time got a promise of him to Prize & Inspect his Tobo at the Warehouse." On July 6, 1768, Sinah and Sarah, daughters of Colonel Daniel
[page 61]McCarty of Cedar Grove, paid a visit to Mount Vernon and this event was thus recorded by Washington in his Diary: "Rid to Muddy Hole where three white men were cradling & then to the Mill where we were getting in Wheat. Mr. Chichester with his wife, 20 Miss S. McCarty and Dr. Rumney came." On July 16, 1768, we find Washington writing in his Diary: "Went by Muddy Hole and Doeg Run to the Vestry of Pohick Church, stayed there till half after 3 oclock & only 4 members coming returned by Captn McCartys & dined there." On July 6, 1769, Daniel McCarty's daughters, Sarah and Nancy, visited Mount Vernon and on that date Washington wrote in his Diary: "Went into my Harvest field in the Neck, on my Return to Dinner found Mr. Chichester, his wife, and Nancy McCarty who stayd all Night," and the next day he wrote: "The above Company going away after Breakfast I went over into ye Neck and returned to Dinner."
Washington's Diary at this period was kept irregularly and there are long lapses of time between the entries, and the next item relating to the McCartys is under date of June 9, 1772, when he wrote: "Went into the Neck in the forenoon, found Mr. Chichester and Wife, Miss Molly McCarty and Mr. Phil Pendleton here; the first went away." His next entry was made on October 16, 1772, and reads: "Captn McCarty, his wife and son, came after Dinn' & stay'd ye night," and the next day, "They went away after Breakfast." In the entry in the Diary for "Sunday, September 3, 1786," Washington recorded that, in company with "Major Washington and Tobias Lear," he "went to Pohick Church & dined at Colo McCartys," and in the years 1785 and 1786 he recorded other social events in
[page 62]which he participated with the McCartys and speaks of hunting and dining "with Colonel Daniel McCarty of Pope's Creek."
It appears also from Washington's papers that on three different occasions he employed people named McCarthy, although none of these seem to have been connected with the old Virginia family. In 1771 he built a mill on his Mount Vernon estate and employed Cornelius McCarthy, a bricklayer and stone mason, on the work, and on August 20, 1771, he made this entry in his Diary: "Con McCarty began to work on the Chimney of the Miller Ho in the morning and Bond abt 12 oclock," and in August and September, 1771, his accounts show that he paid "Con McCarty" 9 pounds, 2 s. 6 d. In 1786, one Thomas McCarthy was in Washington's employ as steward of his household, although it is evident that his services were not very satisfactory. An entry in the Diary under date of August 12, 1786, reads as follows: "Thomas McCarty left this yesterday, it being found that he was unfit for a House hold Steward. Richard Burnett took his place on the wages of Thirty pounds pr ann." In the Washington papers there is also a letter to him dated "City of Washington, April 26, 1797," from one Patrick McCarthy in connection with a contract which Washington had given him for a building or alterations of some kind, and this letter is endorsed in Washington's handwriting: "From Mr. Patrick McCarthy, Stonecutter, April 26, 1797." Another letter in the Washington papers is dated "West Point, 14 August, 1780," and is from one Daniel Carthy to Major Raines in relation to the employment of artificers at Newburgh and New Windsor, N. Y., and requesting Major Raines "to inform the General (Washington) I am just going to push off to Fishkill after the
[page 63]paper," etc... and "in the meantime pray assure the General the Return of Artificers shall be sent tomorrow by 10 o'clock." While this letter is signed "Carthy," it is endorsed by Richard Varick, Aide-deCamp to General Benedict Arnold, "From McCarthy, August 14, 1780."
That portion of his estate in Stafford County which Daniel, the Speaker, bequeathed to his son, Dennis, having been subject to entail, the latter's descendants regarded it as a hardship that they were precluded by the terms of the will from disposing of it as they chose. This matter was the subject of discussion between Daniel McCarty and George Washington, and among the Washington papers at the Library of Congress there is a letter from Daniel McCarty dated December 6, 1769, addressed to "George Washington Esq. at Williamsburg," which reads as follows:
"I send you by Mr. Peirce Bayly the Deeds made by me and my wife to Mr. Chichester and Likewise them from him and his wife to me, as also my Grandfather's will, Wherein you will find in the 3rd. Page how he gave the Land. Fairfax County was then Stafford, and by looking over the Will you may see some hardships which my father was laid under more than either of my Brothers. My wife's father's will I have not, neither is it in my Power to get it at this time, it being on the Records of Lancaster, but you may see by the Deeds made to Mr. Chichester in what manner it was Given which I hope will be sufficient. We have at last had a Vestry to lay the Parish Levy which is Sixty three per Pole 34900 being Levy'd Towards Paying for the Church and by those very Gentlemen who was so much against it formerly. Mrs. Posey & old Mrs. Johnston are both dead within two or three Days of each other. You will remember that I informed you that I have near Six thousand acres of Land more which is all intailed, being in the County of Loudoun, and I must beg your care of the Papers now sent. My Wife joins me in our Compliments to your Self, Mrs. Washington and Miss
[page 64]Patey, hopeing to see you all Return in Good Health, And I remain with great esteem
It is evident that upon Washington's return from Williamsburg the question was again discussed, and that it was decided that McCarty should seek relief from the legislature by securing the passage of an act canceling the entail, which process was known as "docking the entail." The Journals of the House of Burgesses under date of December 12, 1769, contain this entry:
"A Petition of Daniel McCarty was presented to the House, and read, setting forth that the Petitioner is seized in Fee Tail under the Will of Daniel McCarty his Grandfather, of 2000 Acres of Land in the Parish of Truro, and County of Fairfax, and is seized in Fee Simple of 1000 Acres of Land in the County of Fauquier, purchased of Richard Chichester and Sarah his Wife, and that it will be to the advantage of the Petr and those claiming in Remainder if the Intail of the said 2000 Acres of Land in Fairfax was docked and the said 1000 Acres of Land in Fauquier, with nine valuable Slaves, settled in Lieu thereof, and therefore praying that an Act may pass for that Purpose."
Thereupon, it was "Ordered that leave be given to bring in a Bill pursuant to the prayer of the said Petition," and it is with considerable interest that we note that the two persons who were "ordered" by the House "to prepare and bring in the same" were George Washington and Richard Henry Lee. 21 On the following day there is an entry in the Journals, reading: "George Washington, member of the House from Fairfax County, presented a Bill to dock the Intail of certain Lands whereof Daniel McCarty is seized and for settling other
[page 65]Lands and Slaves to the same Uses," and the bill was passed by the House on December 19, 1769.
One of the nearest and most intimate friends of the McCartys was George Mason of Gunston Hall in Fairfax County. Mason is an historic figure in the political movements of his day and is described as "one of the greatest men of a great period." He was the author of the "Declaration of Rights" and the Constitution of Virginia, and is familiarly known as "The Father of States' Rights." Colonel Daniel McCarty and George Mason were keen sportsmen, and Dogue's Neck, part of the Mason estate, was long famous for its native deer and wild fowl, and the neighboring gentry often were guests at the hospitable mansion of the Masons and in hunting parties and other social events of the time. In 1778, Daniel, son of Daniel and Sinah (Ball) McCarty, married Sarah, daughter of George Mason, and William T. Mason, son of George, married Sarah McCarty. Daniel, Jr., was also known as "Colonel," and after their marriage the young couple settled at Cedar Grove. Kate Mason Rowland, in her Life of George Mason, thus refers to Cedar Grove: "The McCarty place has gone out of the family of its original owners. It is beautifully situated on Pohick Creek. Its lovely water views from its commanding position on high ground almost entirely surrounded by the Creek, are its chief attraction now, but in former days, with its lawns, its orchards and its shrubberies, it must have made a delightful residence. The family burial ground at Cedar Grove is perhaps a half mile from the house in a dense grove of oaks and poplars. Bending back the thick branches in this Druid-like solitude and stooping over fallen trees, one finds three graves with their gray mosscovered stones, marking the spots where rest Dennis Mc-
[page 66]Carty and his grandson, Daniel McCarty, with the wife of the latter, who was the daughter of George Mason. Colonel Daniel McCarty, the elder, the friend and contemporary of George Mason, was buried at Mount Airy, another family seat of the McCartys." 22
Colonel McCarty was a large landed proprietor and was also interested in the exportation of tobacco. In the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 23 there is a list of "Slave Owners in Westmoreland County in 1782," numbering 410 in all, who owned 4536 slaves, and in this list Daniel McCarty is shown to have been the owner of 112 slaves and only one other man in the County, Robert Carter, had a greater number. Colonel McCarty commanded a Virginia regiment in the Revolution and he is named among the leaders of the patriot cause in Virginia several years before the outbreak of the war. In referring to the great opposition throughout the country caused by the passage of the Stamp Act (1765), the historian Green says: "the Assembly of Virginia was the first to formally deny the right of the British Parliament to meddle with internal taxation and to demand the repeal of the Act." "Thus," wrote Bancroft, "Virginia rang the alarm bell for the Continent," and in this historic event we find Daniel McCarty taking an active part. When the news of the passage of the Stamp Act reached the Colony an association of patriots was formed to resist the imposition of the tax, and on the 24th of February, 1766, one hundred and fifteen of the leading men of Westmoreland County met at Leedstown and formed "The Association of Westmoreland."
At this meeting Richard Henry Lee drew up resolu-
[page 67]tions which were signed by all present. They asserted in bold language the rights essential to Civil Liberty which were subsequently maintained by the Revolution; they denounced the Stamp Act and the British Parliament and pledged the members of the Association to resist its enforcement with their lives and fortunes. To this historic document Daniel McCarty signed his name, and among others famous in Virginia history who also signed it were four of the Washingtons and six of the Lees. It is one of the most stirring and interesting documents extant relating to the history of the Colony and is now in the possession of the Virginia Historical Society, and a copy of it is inscribed on a tablet at Montross, Va., not far from the residence of Daniel, the Speaker. 24 When the Committee of Safety for Westmoreland County met on the 22nd of June, 1774, Daniel McCarty was also present and at a meeting held at Westmoreland Court House on January 31, 1775, he was chosen one of thirty-five delegates from that County to the Convention of the Colony of Virginia at Williamsburg.
Another McCarty, Charles of Richmond County, Captain of Militia in the Revolutionary War, was also elected a representative of his district at the Convention in May, 1776. This meeting has been described as "the fifth and most important of all the Revolutionary Conventions of Virginia," 25 and it is the fact that Williamsburg was the scene of the important proceedings that were nurtured into maturity at this Convention, that gave to that City the title of "The Cradle of the Revolution." It was a considerable distinction to be a delegate at this Convention, for the newspapers of the time
[page 68]show there was no small competition for seats in its councils.
In 1797 we find Colonel Daniel McCarty in negotiation with President Washington in connection with a proposed transfer of lands in Loudoun County in exchange for lands owned by Washington in what is now West Virginia. In the Washington papers at the Library of Congress there are several original letters from Daniel McCarty to George Washington, and copies of the replies. The proposition seems to have originated verbally with McCarty, who argued that having made considerable improvements in his lands and much of it was under cultivation, while that owned by Washington was yet undeveloped, he expected an equitable exchange. In a long letter to Washington dated "Cedar Grove, November 2, 1797," McCarty said that "this exchange has long been the object of my wishes and has often been revolved in my mind, from which serious contemplations those suggestions made you the other day resulted; my hope was to obtain three acres for one." To this Washington replied in a letter dated "Mount Vernon, November 3, 1797," offering as an equivalent "three tracts on the Kanahawa containing together 12,276 acres for your sugar lands entire," which he said "would have given you a boundary on the rivers of nearly 25 miles of the richest low ground in that country." Washington further described these lands as "not more than three miles from Mount Pleasant, a place which must, as soon as tranquillity is perfectly restored, be of considerable importance from its situation at the junction of two important rivers running in different directions through so large and fertile a tract of country."
The next letter on the subject is dated November 6, 1797, from McCarty to Washington, declining to recede
[page 69]from his offer of "one to three for the exchange," since he put a higher value on his lands than Washington was willing to admit, and the negotiations seem to have continued verbally throughout the year. In a letter from McCarty to Washington dated September 19, 1798, the former said: "having naturally deliberated on your late proposals for an exchange of Landed property, they do not appear such as are consistent with my interest to accept, as your Quantity on the Ohio is not an object to so large a family as mine and the exclusion of Slaves in the Northwestern Territory would render property of little value. The indisputability of title, the superior advantages of situation and soil, annexed to your Western Lands would induce in my mind a preference to any others in that part of the Country, but their rapid rise in value has determined me of late to turn my Views to Louisiana where I think the prospects of accumulating Property of every kind are more inviting than in any part of the United States." With this letter, the negotiations closed.
In an account of Washington's death, written by his Secretary, Tobias Lear, we learn that Colonel Daniel McCarty's family were among those who were especially invited to attend the funeral by the widow, at the request of Washington on his death bed. Tobias Lear had the distinction of being personally attendant at Washington's bedside during his last illness and of being in charge of the arrangements for the funeral, which was solemnized at Mount Vernon on December 18, 1799. He wrote at the time a detailed account of Washington's last hours, bearing every mark of care and authenticity, 26 and under date of "Monday, December 16, 1799," he
[page 70]said: "Gave notice of the time fixed for the funeral to the following persons by Mrs. Washington's desire, viz.--Mr. Mason and family, Mr. Peake and family, Mr. Nickols and family, Mr. McCarty and family, Miss McCarty, Mr. and Mrs. McClanahan, Lord Fairfax and family, Mr. Triplet and family, Mr. Anderson and family, MR. R. West. I wrote also to the Revd. Mr. Davis to read the service." 27 The "Mr. McCarty" here referred to was Colonel Daniel, who married Sarah, daughter of George Mason; "Miss McCarty" was his sister, Mary, and "Mrs. McClanahan" was his sister, Anne, before referred to; so that, at least three of the McCarty family were named among those invited to attend the funeral of the First President of the United States!
[page 71]CHAPTER III
THE MC CARTYS OF VIRGINIA (continued)
William Mason McCarty, Provisional Governor of Florida--The sensational duel between Colonel John Mason McCarty and General Armistead T. Mason--A romantic story--The McCartys as sportsmen--Duel between Captain Page McCarty and John Mordecai--Many separate families of the name in Virginia in colonial days--Mentioned in the Acts of the General Assembly--Major Dennis McCarty of Prince William County, a prominent man--The sad fate of Patrick McCarty--Colonel Edward McCarty of Hampshire County--The remarkable military records of Timothy McCarty and his descendants-- Colonel Daniel McCarty, a patron of the turf.Two of Colonel Daniel McCarty's sons, William Mason McCarty and John Mason McCarty, were noted men in Virginia. William M., who married a daughter of General Armistead T. Mason, was a lawyer and from 1832 to 1839 he was a member of the Virginia Senate until his appointment as Provisional Governor of Florida, and in 1841 he was elected to Congress from Loudoun County, Va. He and his brother, John, were educated at William and Mary College. Captain John Mason McCarty is perhaps best remembered in Virginia for his fatal duel with General Armistead T. Mason at Bladensburg, Md., on February 6, 1819, which has been a subject of discussion at Virginia firesides for a hundred years, and it is said that for a long time after the event the quarrel between Mason and McCarty which culminated in the duel was revived occasionally among their descendants or adherents. It is a story of tragedy and romance and still further tragedy, which seldom
[page 72]has been surpassed in actual life, verifying the old saying, that "truth is stranger than fiction"!
Mason and McCarty were cousins and prior to the events that estranged them were fast friends. During the War of 1812 General Mason introduced a bill in the United States Senate permitting Quakers who were drafted to contribute their share toward the support of the army by furnishing substitutes on payment of $500 each. McCarty disagreed totally with this proposition and did not hesitate to convey his views to the author of the bill, but General Mason insisted on pressing the bill for action and the controversy was continued for some time between the two, and from this sprang a succession of bitter quarrels over other matters which ended in a challenge from McCarty to fight. General Mason did not accept, being a Senator of the United States, but after his term had expired, while riding on a stage to Fredericksburg with General Andrew Jackson, the subject of the challenge came up, when Jackson told Mason that his refusal to accept was an injury to his standing and as he was no longer in office he should now challenge McCarty. Various stories concerning this sensational duel have appeared in southern magazines and newspapers from time to time, but the following account 1 written by a local historian at Bladensburg, Md., in the main is more in accord with the traditions of these families than any other version.
Bladensburg, Md., July 27.--Bladensburg has been the scene of many noted duels in times past. So often, in fact, has her soil been drenched with the blood of the flower of our manhood, that to this day the name of the old town savors of and recalls grewsome memories. But perhaps no duel ever fought
[page 73]here caused more universal regret or widespread interest than that fought between Mason and McCarty in February, 1819.
Nearly one hundred years have passed since those cousins demanded satisfaction of each other under the requirements of the Code of Honor, and still the story is related by reminiscent old folk and impressed upon us as one of Virginia's tragedies. Gen. Armistead T. Mason, United States Senator, and Capt. John M. McCarty, member of the House of Delegates of Virginia, were the combatants in the duel. Both were sons of prominent Virginia families. They were kinsmen, both being grandsons of the first George Mason, author of Bill of Rights and proprietor of "Gunston Hall," on the Potomac, in Fairfax county.
In the political and social issues of their day they were men of note. General Mason was the uncle of James G. Mason, Confederate Minister to France, who was taken from an English warship the first year of the Civil War. He was a much older man than McCarty, who claimed descent from the Kings of Munster, Ireland. The quarrel which had such an unhappy ending originated at an election in Leesburg, Loudoun county, Virginia, in May, 1818. Captain McCarty had just returned from an electioneering tour. During his absence scurrilous reports with a tendency to blacken his reputation had been freely circulated. Damaging assertions appeared in the newspaper published in his town, The Genius of Liberty, edited by James H. Dulany, and under the immediate patronage of General Mason. That the latter gentleman was not altogether guiltless of conspiracy in these published defamations was firmly believed by McCarty and his adherents. Certain it is he did say that young McCarty had perjured himself concerning his age, and that being a minor he had no vote and consequently was ineligible to office. Captain McCarty's rich Irish blood boiled with a righteous indignation and an unrighteous anger when he learned of these statements.
"General Mason will not dare say such a thing to me," he declared, and going directly to the General's office he demanded either denial or a confirmation of the said statements. General Mason declared he was not in a position to deny them, whereupon Captain McCarty struck him in the face, calling him a liar and a coward, and upon the spot challenged the
[page 74]General to fight him. But the latter would not accept the challenge unless written in due form and brought to him by the proper parties.
Captain McCarty then caused a card to be published and freely circulated throughout the county. This old sheet lies before the writer now. It is timeworn and yellowed by age, but its very appearance is interesting and reminiscent, its black letters standing out on its yellowed pages in bold relief. One gazes on it with a sort of fascinated horror, for one knows it had a work to do and that it did it well. Here it is:
Copy of a letter addressed to Thomas F. Tebbs, by Gen. A. T. Mason:
"Sir: I understand you have been the bearer of a note from Mr. John McCarty to George Mason Chichester, demanding of him an explanation of his conduct in lending my pistols to Mr. Handy. The note, as might be expected from the character of its author, was such as not to entitle it to
[page 75]the respect of an answer, and accordingly it has not received one. I will, however, inform you that Mr. Chichester had no agency in the business except to deliver the pistols at my written request to Mr. Mandley Rust. It is true that I did not know, or even suspect, that they were for Mr. Handy; but that is of no consequence, for if I had known all the circumstances I would have lent them to Mr. Handy. The principal object of this note is to inform you that I am responsible for the loan of those pistols. I am apprised that Mr. John McCarty, like a coward and a scoundrel as he is, has come from Alexandria on a bullying expedition. Not satisfied with the contempt and derision to which his recent conduct has exposed him, he seems determined to sink himself still further, if possible, into the depths of infamy. The profligacy and pusillanimity of his character are so fully exemplified as to forbid me to expect anything honorable of him. But I would wish him to know by the perusal of this letter that I do not, in imitation of the example of Mr. Mercer, wish any of my friends to fight my battles for me, even if any of them could be "instigated" to do it. And I repeat that I am responsible for the loan of my pistols of which he pretends to complain. "I am, sir, your friend and humble servant,
This correspondence brought Mason and McCarthy face to face, and though there remained a long interval, during which each indulged in all sorts of threats and billingsgate, a duel was plainly inevitable. It was not actually fought, however, until February, 1819, the modus operandi being a point of dispute in the meanwhile, McCarty suggesting that one of three ways be used: Clap hands and jump from the dome of the capitol; sit on kegs of gunpowder over ignited fuses, causing simultaneous explosions; hand to hand fight with dirks. General Mason did not respond to any of these unusual means, it being finally arranged to fight with singlebarrel shotguns at four paces.
Mason fell dead without a struggle and McCarty was seriously wounded. Such a result was a great surprise. General Mason was an acknowledged crack shot, while McCarty was an inexperienced youth.
[page 76]Mason himself was so confident of his unerring aim he remarked while taking their places that he would stand with his face in the direction he should run, so no time would be lost in turning around. Two bullet holes were found upon his body and foul play was suspected at first, but an examination revealed that the bullet from McCarty's gun had struck squarely upon the lock of Mason's. It was split into halves, each half entering Mason's body and inflicting mortal wounds.
Thus the curtain fell upon the last act of that bloody and unhallowed tragedy.
Many fireside stories have been told about this duel, one to the effect that Captain McCarty while a fugitive from justice was filled with an unconquerable desire to look upon the face of his betrothed, and under cover of a dark night sought her home. When within sight of the house he found that some social function was in progress. He secreted himself in the dense shrubbery near by and watched with a hungry eye the arrival of the guests, among whom were many of his young friends and comrades.
Sounds of merriment and joyous festivity reached his hiding spot. Sad memories were his. Not so long ago he had been a prominent figure in that crowd, his presence sought and enjoyed, for his rich Irish wit and genial, fun-loving disposition made him ever a popular favorite and welcome companion; and now what was his lot? A cast-off, debarred from the associations of his best-loved friends, and even forgotten by the fair young girl, the idol of his dreams of love and happiness.
"And must I leave forever this spot without one sight of her dear face?" he thought. "The risk is great, but I must see her."
When the merriment was at its greatest he stole from his concealment and took his position close to an unshuttered window at the back of the house, a spot which he well knew would give him an unobstructed view of the interior of the parlor, and there, pressed close to the trunk of an old elm tree, so close that his slight figure could well have been taken for a part of the old tree's body, he saw the embodiment of his thoughts, the fair features and graceful form of his love, as she stood at the piano turning over some music.
[page 77]Selecting a piece, she placed it on the piano and took her seat at it. Running her fingers over the keys in a soft musical prelude, she presently lifted her voice in song, tremulous at first, but gathering strength after a bar or two. See the lonely watcher as he listens! Every nerve of sensation strained, every fiber of his being alert. Now he knows that he is not forgotten, he knows that the sad wistfulness on that fair young brow is through anxious thoughts of him, the hunted outcast, for is she not at this moment pouring out all the sadness and grief of that overburdened heart, in the words of that pathetic old love song of Thomas Moore's:
Come rest in this bosom, my own stricken deer,
Though the herd have fled from thee, thy home is still here;
Here still is the smile that no cloud can o'ercast,
And a heart and a hand all thine won to the last.
Oh, what was love made for, if 'tis not the same
Through joy and through torment, through glory and shame?
I know not, I ask not, if guilt's in that heart,
I but know that I love thee, whatever thou art.
Thou hast called me thy "Angel" in moment of bliss,
And thy Angel I'll be mid the horrors of this;
Through the furnace unshrinking, thy steps to pursue,
And shield thee, and save thee, or perish there, too.
As the last words of the old song floated out to him McCarty, casting all fears of arrest aside, rushed from his hiding place into the room, and ere the astounded crowd could move, had the form of his betrothed in his embrace, and with an arm still encircling her, faced them as a hunted deer at bay.
"You are all aware, gentlemen," he said, "that the law is on my head. I am subject to your arrest. Do with me as you will."
So great was the sympathy of all for him that not a finger was raised against him. With one more look upon the loved face, one more close embrace, and a passionate kiss upon the pallid brow, he placed the almost fainting form upon a sofa and went once more out into the night!
In the course of time he married this young lady who had remained so true to him through shadow as well as sunshine. Captain McCarty was familiarly known as "Jack" McCarty
[page 78]by his friends and associates. He was an active figure in all circles. Full of humor, warmhearted and generous, he numbered his friends by the score. He was of strong personality, but his quick temper and impetuous outbursts won for him the sobriquet, "The Fire-eater."
He was reported a particeps in a duel later in life, fought in the South, and it was his cousin, 2 Page McCarty, who killed Mr. Mordecai in a duel at Richmond. To Captain McCarty, however, is due the amicable and honorable adjustment of the bloodless duel of Mr. Wise, of Virginia, and Edward Stanley.
McCarty had one son, to whom he was most tenderly attached. This young man was a graduate of the University of Virginia, and in all respects possessed an exemplary character. On one sad day, a young college friend, a classmate, visited the young McCarty for a hunt. The friend became very thirsty during the progress of the sport and asked McCarty if he knew of any nearby spring where they could get a drink of water. McCarty replied that a little further on was a fine spring of ice-cold water, at the same time pointing out a tree in an adjoining field, a large oak, under which the spring gushed forth its cool waters.
Arriving at the fence which divided the fields, the young man leaped it and soon quaffed away his burning thirst. Becoming aware that young McCarty had not followed, but remained sitting on the fence, he inquired why he did not come and drink also. McCarty told him he did not dare place a foot on the soil upon which he (the friend) now stood, for it belonged to the kinsman whose blood the hand of his father had spilled. Thereupon his friend passed him a cup of water, but in the act, the lock of young McCarty's gun caught on a fence-rail and an explosion resulted. The whole load entered under McCarty's chin, passing out at the top of his head and causing instantaneous death.
Captain McCarty, the father, was absent from his home at the time of this horrible disaster, on a business trip in New York city; and now comes the strange part of the incident. Captain McCarty could not be communicated with, having left no address behind him. The night following the day of
[page 79]the accident to his son he had a dream. He dreamed his son was in some deep trouble; he could hear his voice full of poignant distress, calling him so plainly that he awoke and started from his couch. He didn't like the dream and pondered over it long ere slumber again visited him.
Again he saw in a second dream his son lying dead before him in the exact spot he had met his death. Again the father awoke, and yet again he slept and dreamed the same dream. Whereupon he arose and prepared himself with all dispatch for his return home. Being the day of the stage-coach, he did not reach his home until the afternoon of the third day. When within sight of his home he saw a funeral cortege winding through the yard gate.
He followed. Needless for him to ask whose loved form rested in that black-draped casket! In his dreams he had seen it all, and when told how and where the boy of whom he was so proud, and whom he so devotedly loved, had met his sad end his chin sank upon his breast and as he entered his sorrow-stricken home he muttered, "Retribution!"
One of the members of the family, Mrs. Sally McCarty Pleasants of Menasha, Wisconsin, was the author of a book entitled Old Virginia Days and Ways. 3 It is a delightful series of reminiscences of Virginia life before the Civil War and in it Mrs. Pleasants relates several interesting anecdotes of the McCartys. She was the daughter of Colonel John Mason McCarty and his wife, Ann Lucinda Lee, and was born in Loudoun County in 1836, and her childhood days were spent in Leesburg, a historic town at the foot of the Blue Ridge mountains. She inherited from her father about 1200 acres of land in Loudoun County which she says "is all that is left to the family of a tract granted to Daniel McCarty, which tract embraced a strip of country extending from Broad Run to Sugar Land Run and covered parts of several Counties." In referring to the fondness of
[page 80]the family for following the chase, she relates this amusing incident:
"My grandfather, Daniel McCarty, whose mother was a Miss Ball, married a daughter of George Mason of Gunston Hall. He had ten sons and one daughter. When they all grew up, Cedar Grove became the scene of continued frolicking. Fox-hunting was the favorite pastime, especially of Daniel, the eldest son. So do our predilections decide our fate. One day when the chase had been unusually long and hard, he became separated from his companions and followed the quarry, until after many doublings and windings, it ran unexpectedly into the wooded lawn of a gentleman's house. Daniel rushed after in hot pursuit to find himself confronted by a beautiful young woman, in whose arms the fox had taken sanctuary. With flashing eyes, she dared him to touch it and he instantly divined that the little animal must be a pet in the family. Confused and contrite, he threw himself from his horse and hat in hand stammered his apologies. Alas! the fox got the better of the hunter that October day, for Daniel was so hard hit that he never rested until he won the spirited damsel for his wife. The temper, however, which had seemed so charming in the maid, proved less attractive in the spouse and many tales are told of her violent and unreasonable temper. Daniel McCarty died before he was forty and his friends were accustomed to say, in speaking of him, that in chasing a fox he caught a vixen!"
The Page McCarty before referred to had a picturesque career as lawyer, journalist and duelist, and the duel which he fought with John Mordecai near Richmond 42 years ago, in its romantic and tragic circumstances, created as much sensation at the time as that in which his uncle, John Mason McCarty, took part about sixty years before. Page McCarty was best known as a writer of short stories, and as editor of The Campaign during the "Readjuster Days" n Virginia, he achieved considerable local fame. His utterances, however, brought down on him the wrath of certain political ele-
[page 81]ments in the State, and being a man of fiery temper he became embroiled in more than one quarrel. In an account of his career we are told: "The reigning belle and beauty of the day in Richmond was Mary Triplett, one of the most charming and queenly women ever produced in Virginia. Hundreds worshipped at her shrine and she was known as 'the Belle of the South.' Mingling in the best society, Mordecai and McCarty constantly met Miss Triplett and soon were rivals for her favor, outstripping, it is said, all the rest. The two, once such fast friends, became estranged, although not exactly hostile to each other. So matters went until an event occurred, joyous in its nature, but the beginning of a tragedy which ended one life and wrecked another. A grand hall was given at which the favored portion of the social world of Richmond was present. Miss Triplett was, as always, the center of attraction and among her devoted cavaliers were Mordecai and McCarty. The former was the favored suitor that night and the patience of the high-spirited McCarty was severely tried. Finally, the beauty slighted him in such a marked manner that he left the ball thoroughly enraged."
This incident served to widen the breach between Mordecai and McCarty and when they met at the Richmond Club a few days later a quarrel arose, which ended in a challenge from McCarty to fight. The spot selected for the duel was near Oakwood Cemetery, where sleep the remains of twenty thousand Confederate soldiers. "On a beautiful afternoon in May, 1878, two carriages left the City by different routes, bound for the place chosen. The sun was just sinking below the horizon as the men were placed in position, each one cool and calm. At the word both fired, and when the smoke lifted each lay on the ground apparently lifeless. A
[page 82]cursory examination by the surgeons revealed wounds of a terrible nature. McCarty's right thigh had been shattered, while the bullet from his pistol had pierced Mordecai's abdomen. Two days later, Mordecai died, while McCarty was confined to his bed desperately ill. The seconds were arrested and lodged in jail, where they remained for six weeks. At the end of that time McCarty, having partially recovered, was placed on trial, and was convicted and sentenced to pay a fine of $500, as well as to serve a sentence of six months in jail. He paid the fine, but was pardoned a few days later by Governor Kemper, on the statement of physicians that he would die if confined. Since that day to the time of his death, McCarty was a miserable man. He avoided women and was inclined to shun all mankind. He reentered the newspaper field, doing work on the Washington Post and Alexandria and Richmond papers. Mary Triplett, whose fatal beauty caused the tragedy, married Captain Philip Hoxall a short time after the duel. She died suddenly of heart disease a few years ago. To the last she was a leader of society."
Besides Major Dennis McCarty and his family who lived in Prince William and Stafford Counties, the land records show that others of the name settled in that part of the Colony about the year 1730. By deed dated February 19, 1729, Lord Fairfax conveyed to "Alexander MacCarthy, Gent. of the County of Prince George in the Province of Maryland," 200 acres of land in Clifton's Neck, Stafford County, 4 and it is evident that MacCarthy removed from Maryland and settled in this vicinity, since his name is found on record there two years later. On December 11, 1730, he received a grant of "200 acres on the northeast side of Tuskarora Branch
[page 83]adjoining the lands of George Keaton," 5 and three days later he patented "340 acres on Little Hunting Creek adjoining the lands of George Brenton." 6 In the records of the Circuit Court at Manassas, Va., under date of November 20, 1783, there is an entry of a deed of conveyance from Benjamin Grayson to Alexander MacCarthy of a tract of land lying on Goose Creek in Prince William County, and on August 18, 1749, Cornelius MacCarthy purchased lands lying on Goose Creek from Bertrand Ewell. There is nothing to indicate whether these Prince William and Stafford MacCarthys were related to the other McCartys, descended from Dennis and Daniel, although there is a tradition among Cornelius' descendants in Kentucky that "the connection between their line and the Dennis-Daniel-Thaddeus McCarty line goes back to a very early beginning." 7
Cornelius MacCarthy had sons, Cornelius and Thomas, and daughters, Nancy and Betsey, all of whom spelled their name McCarty. In the historical publications of William and Mary College there are long accounts of these McCartys. Cornelius, Junior, who was born in Prince William County in 1766, married Susannah Hardwick on December 12, 1787, and in 1798 they removed to Kentucky and twelve years later they are found on Otter Creek in Hardin (now Meade) County, Kentucky. Thomas McCarty and his wife also migrated with Cornelius and settled in the same locality. Cornelius McCarty was the father of eleven, and Thomas McCarty of twelve children and according to a long list of their descendants, 8 they are now scattered all over the Western States as far as the Pacific Coast. In 1780,
[page 84]Nancy McCarty married James Crook of an old Virginia family and had three children, all brought up in the family of Thomas McCarty on his Kentucky plantation, after being orphaned through the death of their parents. Betsey McCarty married Jacob McConathy of Delaware, whose commission as Captain of Virginia militia in the Revolution bears the signature of Patrick Henry. The McConathys also removed to Kentucky in 1797 and the graves of several of the name and of the McCartys, and of Daniel McCarty Paine, may be seen in the old McConathy burying-ground near Lexington. Captain McConathy is said to have been the owner of "the first steam mill operated west of the Alleghanies near Lexington."
It is evident that Cornelius retained portion of his landed property in Virginia, since one of his descendants" 9 is in possession of an unrecorded deed dated December 23, 1816, between Cornelius McCarty and Susannah, his wife, of the one part and James Kincheloe of Fauquier County, Va., of the other part, covering the sale of two hundred acres of land in Fauquier County. Cornelius died probably in 1830, since his will is dated September 20 of that year and was probated on February 28, 1831. His brother, Thomas, died in Kentucky in 1828. Their children married into families named Beaver, Bentley, Dawson, Workington, Lusk, Murdock, Moreland, Jewell, Kelley, Chambers, Lee, Mahan, Steele, Wilson, Ihrie and Greer, and their descendants are now all over the Western and Southern States. A grandson of Cornelius, William M. McCarty of Salt Lake, was a Judge of the courts in Utah.
The difficulty of tracing people of the name who appear in Virginia records and establishing their relation
[page 85]ships, is well illustrated by entries in the parish books of Overwharton Parish in Stafford County. According to this record, "John, son of William and Agnes McCarty," and "John, son of William McCarty," were born in that parish on March 27th, and April 1st, 1741 respectively, and William McCarty died there on July 15, 1743. Among the marriages recorded in the parish register were: Agnes McCartee to James Hughes on May 6, 1744; Elizabeth McCarthy to Simson Bailey on December 24, 1747; Eleanor McCarty to John Lemmon on April 10, 1748; Frances McCarty to John Diskin on June 19, 1755, and Margaret McCarty to Stephen Hansford on October 14, 1755. Ignatius McCarthy appears in the burial records of the church on February 18, 1755. Among other entries are found: "Peter Murphy Carty, son of Honour Carty, died December 1, 1748"; "Honour Cartee was delivered of a male child which died soon after, November 20, 1749," and "Thomas Cartee died at Stephen Pilcher's June 18, 1751." Honour Carty or Cartee was the wife of Thomas and the daughter of Peter Murphy, whose name appears several times in the vital records of the parish. While we know that Daniel, the Speaker, owned lands in Stafford and that his son, Dennis, was a resident of the County before it was divided by the formation of Prince William, there seems to be nothing to indicate if these various McCartys were of the same family, and inquiries among living descendants of Daniel bring forth no information.
There is no scarcity of Irish names in the records of Overwharton Parish, and among the surnames in the birth and marriage records between 1735 and 1755 are found Barry, Burke, Carberry, Carney, Cassidy, Connolly, Conwell, Dalton, Dillon, Dowling, Driscoll, Duffy,
[page 86]Fitzpatrick, Fling, Foley, Gallahan, Gill, Gorman, Heffernan, Kelly, Kenny, Maccaboy, McDonald, McGuirk, MacMahon, MacMurray, Murphy, Nowland, O'Bannion, O'Neal, O'Cane, O'Daniel and Sullivan. Several of these people are also recorded at the Land office in Richmond as patentees of lands in Stafford County, as well as people named Connyers, Dongan, Dermott, Hogan, Keeffe, Lynch, McCormick, McGuire, McLoughlin, Prendergast, Regan and Ryley between 1710 and 1749. 10 One Edmond MacCarthy came at a very early date to Isle of Wight and Brunswick Counties, Va. At the Land Office I found a patent recorded 11 as of September 28, 1728, under which "William Gooch, LieutenantGovernor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of Virginia," granted to "Edmond Macarthy" at tract of "960 acres of land on both sides of the north fork of Jeneto Creek in the County of Brunswick," and in this instrument the patentee is described as "of Isle of Wight County." Twelve years later he received a grant of 940 acres in Isle of Wight County, and since he is referred to in this patent as "of Brunswick County" it is probable that he took up and resided on the first-mentioned grant. These are the only references to Edmond MacCarthy that appear in the land books and all efforts to obtain further information about him have been unavailing.
About 1730 a number of Irish settlers located in Orange County, Va., and in the tax lists of that County of the years 1734-1739 are found some of the most distinctive Celtic names. James Carthey is recorded as the patentee of a tract of one thousand acres of land in
[page 87]Orange County on October 23, 1739, 12 but this is the only mention of his name I have found. One of the early settlers in the same vicinity between 1748 and 1750 was Timothy McCarty. 13 Cartmell mentions him in his Shenandoah Valley Pioneers and their Descendants among those included in Washington's "Field Notes" relating to surveys of lands in old Frederick County, and Washington's "Journal of My Journey over the Mountains," 14 written while surveying for Lord Fairfax in the Northern Neck of Virginia, shows that he surveyed a plot for Timothy McCarty on August 26, 1750. 15
In a "Poll List of Frederick County, containing the names of those who voted for George Washington when a candidate for the House of Burgesses, taken July 24, 1758," the name of Darby McCarty is listed. 16 He also appears in the land records. By deed dated December 20, 1754, Lord Fairfax conveyed "400 acres of land on a branch of the North River of Shenandoah called Passage Creek," in Frederick County, to "Darby Maccarthy" 17 and there is another grant on record dated
[page 88]December 17, 1771, by which Lord Fairfax conveyed to "Darby McCarty" a tract of 253 acres in the same vicinity, and the deed recited that the grant was made "as by survey thereof dated June the First, 1757, made for the said Darby McCarty by George Hume and forfeited by Virtue of an Advertisement issued from my office and recorded there in Book N, but on application of said Darby McCarty I have allowed a Deed to issue to him for said Land." 18
Daniel and James McCarty appear in lists of Virginia colonial militia of the years 1758 to 1762 and James McCarty and John "McCartrey" fought on the Virginia frontier in Lord Dunmore's war in 1774. 19 One Michael McCarty was also in Virginia about this time and his name occurs several times in the records of the General Assembly. Twelve soldiers, who said they had been "some time employed as Guardsmen over the Magazine in the City of Williamsburg," having been "discharged from that duty" and being about "to enlist in the Militia and find proper Arms," they petitioned the legislature to be permitted "to keep the Arms they made use of when they guarded the Magazine," being "very poor men and not able to spare much for the maintenance of their respective Families as well as purchase suitable Arms for mustering." Michael McCarty's name appears at the head of this petition, which was read in the House of Burgesses on December 23, 1762, but was rejected. On November 6, 1766, Michael McCarty again turns up as an applicant for appointment as "Door Keeper to this House," but Michael received only three votes in the committee and Robert Hyland was appointed to the place. On February 8, 1772, Michael McCarty
[page 89]was again one of the unsuccessful applicants for the place. 20 William Cartie of Albemarle County fought in two wars, as also did Daniel McCarty. The latter's record reads thus: "Daniel McCarty, deceased soldier in Captain Giles Raines' Company, 2nd. Virginia Regiment; served May 6, 1774, to March 2, 1780, and received a land warrant which reverted to his sister, Sarah, wife of Captain Giles Raines." 21 Florence McCarty was also a resident of Albemarle County and in 1776 he signed a "Petition of Albemarle and Amherst Dissenters" to the House of Delegates, praying to be relieved of certain burdensome taxes.
The Acts of the Virginia General Assembly, in Henings Statutes at Large, 22 contain various references to the McCartys, the earliest being official documents of the year 1714 bearing the joint signatures of Alexander Spotswood, Governor, and Daniel McCarty, Speaker of the House. 23 The McCartys and Washingtons were engaged in the cultivation and exportation of tobacco, 24 and in many parts of Virginia this was the staple product of the soil and from the earliest times tobacco was the currency of the Colony. So extensive was its production that many Acts of the Legislature were passed regulating the culture and trade in tobacco, and one office of the vestries was to appoint "reputable freeholders" to supervise the crops and their shipment, and
[page 90]as early as 1731 we find Dennis McCarty appointed to this then important post. At various times also the Assembly ordered the erection of warehouses on the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, where the tobacco was brought in for inspection and prepared for shipment. One of these warehouses was erected on Dennis McCarty's land on Pohick Run, another on Daniel McCarty's property at Occoquan Ferry and another on the Washington property at the mouth of Great Hunting Creek. These places were made ports of entry and soon became busy marts of trade, sending out for many years ships laden with cargoes of tobacco and other products for foreign ports.
"An Act for Amending the Staple of Tobacco and for preventing Frauds in his Majesty's Customs," passed at a session in May, 1732, directed that a number of public warehouses be erected at various points, one of which was "for the use of the inhabitants of Prince William County at Pohick, upon Mr. Dennis McCarty's land." 25 By "An Act for erecting a town at Bray's Church on the north side of the Rappahannock River in King George County," passed in May, 1742, the Legislature appointed Daniel McCarty one of seven directors and trustees who were directed to carry out the enterprise. 26 At a session held in November, 1753, an Act was passed "for erecting a town on the Occoquan River in the County of Fairfax on the land of Peter Wagoner," which "would be very convenient for trade and navigation and greatly to the ease and advantage of the frontier inhabitants," and under this Act the land taken was "vested in Peter Wagoner, Daniel McCarty, John Barry, William Elzy and Edward Washington, Gentlemen,"
[page 91]and these several gentlemen were "constituted and appointed directors and trustees for designing, building, carrying on and maintaining the said town upon the land aforesaid." 27
By "An Act for opening and clearing the navigation of the Rappahannock River," dated December 11, 1795, Henry Lee and Daniel McCarty were appointed "Managers" of the undertaking, 28 and at the same session of the legislature William McCleary, Nicholas Casey, Michael Kerns and Edward McCarty were appointed, a board of four commissioners who were "authorized and empowered to contract and agree with some fit persons for repairing the wagon road from the mouth of Savage River to Morgantown on the Monongalia River upon the best terms that can be obtained." 29 It is an interesting circumstance that all four Commissioners bore Irish names.
Daniel McCarthy was appointed on December 31, 1798, to lay out the town of South Haven in Fairfax County, 30 and Edward McCarty of Hampshire County was selected on December 1, 1800, as one of the Commissioners under "An Act to incorporate a Company for establishing a turnpike road from the mouth of Savage River, on St. George's Creek on Potowmac to the nearest western navigation." 31 Colonel Daniel McCarty was a member of "The Potomac Company," an organization first projected in 1762 for the development of western lands. In Virginia records it is referred to frequently, especially in connection with acts of the legislature relating to the clearing and improvement of the Potomac River to make it fit for navigation, and a list of Virginia gentlemen who, in November, 1774, were appointed trustees
[page 92]of the company is headed by such names as George Washington, George and Thomson Mason, Bryan Fairfax, John Carlyle and Daniel McCarty. 32 The provisions of "an Act concerning the Patowmac Company," passed January 27, 1803, in relation to the "deepening of the locks at the great falls of the Potomac," said: "Tobias Lear, Stevens T. Mason, Lawrence A. Washington, Hugh Holmes, Nicholas Fitzhugh Osborne and Edward McCarty are hereby appointed Commissioners to explore and view the said river . . . and shall report to th enext General Assembly the manner in which said work is done." 33
The Edward McCarty here referred to was a son of Patrick McCarty, who with his two brothers emigrated from Ireland about the year 1740, Patrick locating in Hampshire County and the others are supposed to have settled in the Valley of Virginia. 34 The place where he located was on Patterson's Creek, a branch of the Potomac, some distance south of the present City of Cumberland, Md., where the States of West Virginia, Pennsylvania and Maryland meet. It was a sparsely settled frontier region and from the beginning it was known as "Paddytown," but is now called Keyser. Soon a sufficient community had gathered together to form quite a settlement, which came to be known as "The Irish Settlement," and for many years the people lived in comparative peace. But, after the defeat of Braddock in 1755, and the Indians, flushed with victory, went on the warpath, this region was visited frequently by bands of savages, which made it necessary for the
[page 93]settlers to erect blockhouses and stockades, to where they fled for safety when warned of an approaching attack.
The sad fate of Patrick McCarty illustrates the hazards of frontier life. In the year 1762, while McCarty and his neighbors were harvesting their crops, the place was attacked by a band of Indians, and all but Windle Miller and Patrick McCarty managed to reach the blockhouse in safety. Miller was shot dead, but, on account of the breaking of a rail while in the act of climbing a fence, McCarty was overtaken and captured and was burned by the savages at the stake. Many years afterwards, on the spot where this awful tragedy took place, a stone was erected, which still stands and bears the following inscription:
"In memory of two early settlers on this creek
The year "1761" undoubtedly is an error, because I have found at the Land Office in Richmond a record of a grant dated October 5, 1762, from Lord Fairfax to "Patrick McCarty of Hampshire County," of "70 acres of land on the North Branch of the Potomac River in said County," one of the boundary lines of which is described as "the lands of Daniel O'Neal." 36 It must be assumed that Patrick McCarty was alive at the time
[page 94]this grant was made. One of his descendants states that "Patrick McCarty's grandchildren were the only old settlers of the name in Hampshire County and owned practically all of the country around New Creek, now called Keyser, but then known as Paddy Town." Edward McCarty, son of Patrick, was the leading man of his time in that part of Virginia, and, as his greatgrandson 37 informs me, "he stood six feet six inches in height, weighed over 250 pounds, was a man of extraordinary energy and capacity, and was engaged in all kinds of business in that section." He was a soldier of the Revolution and in 1781, when only twenty-five years of age, he commanded a company of General William Darke's regiment of the Virginia Continental Line, and there is an account of his death in the Providence (R. I.) American of September 21, 1824, reading:
"Died, Colonel Edward McCarty in Virginia, aged 68 years, an officer and patriot of the Revolution." There are many references to him in the court records of old Augusta County, in all of which he is styled "Colonel" Edward McCarty, and it is assumed that this title was conferred on him after the war. That he lived on New Creek as early as 1774 is evident from some testimony taken in a suit at law entitled "Marshall vs. Janney," tried in Augusta County court on June 22, 1799. The cause of action concerned title to certain lands on New Creek and Edward McCarty testified that "he had known the lands involved in the suit since 1770." He also appeared in a case entitled "Coleman vs. Morgan," concerning a tract of 600 acres on Big Sandy Creek, part of a tract originally granted to Captain John Savage and others in December, 1775, and which, after several transfers came into possession of
[page 95]Edward McCarty by deed from Daniel Jones dated August 11, 1801.
At the State Land Office there are records of several land grants in Hampshire and Hardy Counties to Edward McCarty. On March 5, 1780, Beverly Randolph, Governor of Virginia, conveyed to him "401 acres of land as surveyed November 20, 1764," and in this deed he is described as "heir at law of Patrick McCarty." 38 On June 30th, of the same year Edmond Randolph, Governor of Virginia, conveyed to Edward McCarty 192 acres in the same vicinity, 39 and on March 6, 1789, Governor Randolph signed a grant in his favor for fortynine acres on Howell's Run, Hardy County. 40 Hampshire County owes much to Colonel Edward McCarty and his sons. For many years they were actively engaged in the building of highways and opening up the rough, mountainous country for the entry of settlers, and it is said that the town now known as White Post in Hampshire County, W. Va., took its name from a stake or post painted white erected in the vicinity for the purpose of marking out a tract of land patented by one of the McCartys.
He cultivated a large tract of land on the north branch of the Potomac, known as Black Oak Bottom, which remained in possession of the family until 1882 when it was sold for $30,000. He and his sons were the first to clear out the Potomac and make it fit for navigation, and for many years the sons were engaged in the business of transporting down the river lumber, flour and charcoal for Eastern and European markets. One of the many enterprises started by this family was the establishment of a bank at Cumberland, Md., in the
[page 96]year 1811, which was conducted by Patrick, Edward and Michael McCarty, sons of Colonel Edward McCarty, and which still exists as the First National Bank of Cumberland. Edward McCarty (2nd) was born at Cumberland in 1784 and died at that place in 1849. He married Sarah Cresap and by her had two sons, James who resided at Cumberland, and Joseph who settled at Clarksburg, W. Va., from where he emigrated to the west, settling at Kansas City, and thence to Washington County, Texas, where he died in 1877.
A descendant of Patrick McCarty now residing at Romney, Hampshire County, West Virginia, writes me as follows: "The McCartys have all lived in Virginia and one of my paternal ancestors was among the earliest white settlers at White Post and Winchester, Virginia, about the time of the Revolution, locating there with people named Meade and Page. They are connected with many of the oldest and best families of the Valley. The rest of their people settled east of the Blue Ridge. From a child I have been told we are Scotch-Irish, but that we are descended from the best people in Ireland. Now, however, I am proud to learn that I am a descendant of the real Irish. Father says, as far back as he can remember, that our great-grandfather's religion was Methodist or Scotch Presbyterian." After relating some more interesting family history, this lady shows that even time's vicissitudes have not entirely eliminated her Irish blood, for she naively remarks, "we McCartys are of the fighting races; the boys of our family have been true to the flag of freedom; they went where duty called, and never asked for the world's honors; 'Duty and Service' was their motto and I believe I have a justifiable pride in saying that I belong to a family that has left its mark, not only in the history of Virginia and
[page 97]West Virginia, but in many parts of the West, where the descendants of the Virginia McCartys settled at various times during the past century."
If testimony were wanted in support of the statement that the Irish in America have neglected their opportunities of relating their history, here is a living witness. This lady, a sturdy and patriotic descendant of the ancient race of Clancarthy, who were Princes in the Emerald Isle long before the English connection blasted the future of that unhappy country and scattered her children far and wide, has always been under the impression that she came of the "Scotch-Irish," and now for the first time learns that she is of the ancient Irish race!
In the records of wills and deeds of old Augusta County the name occurs frequently, its earliest appearance being the year 1764 in the person of Thomas McCarthy, who lived in that part of Augusta that is now embraced in Hampshire County, West Virginia. A lawsuit entitled "Thomas McCarthy vs. George Massinbird" was tried in August County in the year 1798, and the papers in the case recited that Thomas McCarthy, Sr., father of the plaintiff, purchased from Massinbird "1010 acres of land on the Little Levels of Greenbrier in Bath County by deed dated April 14, 1796;" that on October 5, 1797, he conveyed 500 acres to the plaintiff and the remainder of the tract the McCarthys sold to William Poage. James Crawford of Augusta County claimed 270 acres of the tract under a patent confirmed by the court on May 2, 1783, and on the trial of a suit against McCarthy, Crawford secured judgment. Thomas McCarthy, Sr., died on March 25, 1799, leaving his son, Thomas, his sole heir, and the latter sued Massinbird for the loss of the 270 acres recovered by Crawford.
[page 98]Both suits occupy many pages of the record and are referred as "the notable cause of the McCartys." In the record of another case styled "McCarthy vs. Machir," concerning lands sold by Thomas McCarthy to James Machir on October 15, 1795, Thomas McCarthy, Sr., is described as "of Hardy County" and his son as "of Monroe County." The "home plantation" was near a place called Moorfield in Hardy County, now in West Virginia, and one of their neighbors at this place was John Jackson, a native of County Derry, Ireland, who was the great-grandfather of General "Stonewall" Jackson of Civil War fame. Previous to locating in Hardy County, however, Thomas McCarthy acquired lands in Hampshire County, and there are patents recorded at Richmond by which Edmund Randolph, Governor of Virginia, conveyed to Thomas McCarthy 108 acres on Brake's Run on September 15, 1780, 41 and 405 acres more on November 24, 1789, "which were surveyed for Thomas McCarthy on May 27, 1771." 42
On March 17, 1767, Samuel Pepper gave a bond in Augusta County court "as administrator of James Carty," 43 and on November 19, 1768, he filed a "sale bill" in connection with his administration of "James Cartie's estate." 44 There is also an entry under date of April 18, 1787, reading: "James McCartey's estate settled by Samuel Pepper." 45 One William Watterson conveyed to "James McCarty of the City of Williamsburg, Va.," by deed dated April 12, 1768, "600 acres of land on the Middle River in Augusta County, bounded
[page 99]by the lands of John Anderson and James Allen" for a consideration of 150 pounds. 46
Timothy McCarty was an early settler in Pocahontas County, now in West Virginia. His name appears in the land and survey records between 1745 and 1750 and I am of the belief that this was the same Timothy McCarty already alluded to under Orange County, for whom George Washington made a land survey in the year 1750. This Timothy McCarty was a soldier in the War of the Revolution in the Virginia State Line, and that the fighting spirit of the race did not die out, is clear from the remarkable military records of his descendants. Seven of his sons served in the War of 1812; three grandsons served in the Union army and several others in the Confederate ranks in the Civil War; two of his great-grandsons served in the Philippines in the war with Spain, and one of his descendants has sent to me a list of ten American soldiers named McCarty who gave up their lives in France in the World War, some of whom were descended from the Irish exile, Timothy McCarty. An historian of Pocahontas County makes the following interesting references to this pioneer Irishman and his sons:
"One of the earliest pioneers in our County was Timothy McCarty, a native of Ireland. He settled on Knapp's Creek previous to the Revolution and was a soldier in that memorable war for independence. He could speak from experience that hard was the contest for liberty and the struggle for independence. With his humble hand he helped to make the history that forms one of the most instructive chapters in the annals of human endeavors for 'life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.' His first marriage was with Nancy Honeyman and they settled on lands near Frost (W. Va.), thence removed to Brown's Mountain and opened up property. By his
[page 100]first marriage there were seven sons, Daniel, Preston, Justin, James and Thomas, the names of the others not remembered. All of these sons were soldiers in the War of 1812 and but one of them (Daniel) ever returned to Pocahontas to live; the rest either perished in the war or went to Tennessee or Kentucky. Timothy McCarty's second marriage was with Jane Waugh, by whom he had thirteen children. He was one of those who stood faithfully in the struggle for American independence, and is one of the few Revolutionary veterans buried in our mountain land." 47
Many descendants of Timothy McCarty are now living in various parts of West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Kansas and Minnesota. Daniel McCarty, son of Timothy, and his wife, Elizabeth Moore, settled on his father's lands in Brown's Mountain, and his step-brother, Jacob McCarty, was a member of the West Virginia legislature and was prominent in the political affairs of the State many years ago.
Another soldier who served in the War of 1812 was Peter McCarty of Winchester, Va., and for his services in that war he received a grant of land, which however he did not take up. His great-great-granddaughter informs me that there is a tradition in the family that he was a brother of Cornelius and Thomas McCarty, already mentioned as having emigrated to Kentucky from Prince William County in the year 1798, and although his descendants claim that he was descended from the original Daniel of Westmoreland County, it is clear that they are in error, since there is no record of any Peter in that branch of the family. Moreover, Peter of Winchester as well as his father, were Catholics and did not abandon the old faith, which would make it appear that they were more recent arrivals from Ireland. Peter's first and second wives were Methodists and
[page 101]nearly all their descendants have adhered to the Methodist religion. I am informed that "he was a man of some importance in West Virginia about a hundred years ago, a large landowner and brick manufacturer and a well-known sportsman in his time." Some time before the Civil War his aged widow took up his land grant and was given lands near Iroquois, Illinois, where she located with her son, James.
Peter McCarty's children were George, Joseph S., John, James, Andrew, Rebecca Ann and Elizabeth Ann. George left a large family and his grandchildren are now scattered through Virginia and Ohio. Joseph S., is described as "a man of great force of character, a Justice at Winchester for many years," and although nearly fifty years of age at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War, he enlisted in the Confederate army and was captured and sent to Fort McHenry by Sheridan's troops in 1864. He was the father of seven sons and one daughter, and three of his sons, William H., Cornelius M. and Samuel E. McCarty, served in the Confederate army and were imprisoned for a time at Fort McHenry. William N. was a purchasing agent for the army, until captured and imprisoned, and after the ware he became a Methodist preacher on the Rockbridge, Va. Circuit. Of Peter's other sons, John died about 1835; James married Nancy Hall, and with their eleven children they removed to Illinois, and Andrew removed to Xenia, Ohio. Rebecca Ann married Charles Blake of New Hampshire and had ten children, and Elizabeth Ann married a Mr. Stewart of Virginia and had seven children. All told, Peter McCarty had fifty-four grandchildren and thirty-nine great-grandchildren, many of whom now live at Iroquois and Sheldon, Illinois, at Lafayette and Brook, Indiana, and at Xenia, Ohio.
[page 102]Others of his descendants in the male line I have traced to Berryville, White Hall and Greenspring, Va., to Romney and Keyser, W. Va., to San Antonio, Texas, Baltimore, Md., Philadelphia, Pa., and Elmira and Oswego, N. Y., and the graves of many members of the family may be seen in the little rural cemeteries at White Post, Kernstown and Winchester, Va.
The name turns up in the public records of so many different parts of Virginia during the colonial period, and with little or nothing in most cases to serve as a guide to enable one to trace these people or determine their relationships, that in many instances one has to give up the search as an apparently hopeless task. In the successive generations of Daniel McCarty's descendants, their names are associated constantly with those of other Southern families of caste and distinction, and in accounts of eighteenth century social functions and in the traditions of some of the leading families of the State, the McCarty name occurs frequently. The popular southern sport of fox-hunting, which was in full swing in Virginia for years before the Civil War, seems to have had its fascinations for the McCartys, and in many an exciting chase for the fox's brush, when the crimson-coated horsemen dashed gaily over the country, the Irish blood of the McCartys often asserted itself in these stirring contests. And Washington mentions in his Diary incidents of his following the hounds, and, on his return from the day's sport, "dining at Colonel Daniel McCarty's."
Colonel Daniel McCarty of Pope's Creek is mentioned among some prominent Virginians who imported English thoroughbred horses for racing purposes between 1750 and 1775, and in the newspapers of the time may be seen occasional references to his horses which were en-
[page 103]tered at the "race meets" held at Annapolis and Upper Marlborough, Md., and at Fredericksburg, Va. 48 In the American Turf Register may be read various memoranda relating to the breeding and pedigrees of horses, racing notes, etc., taken from "the race book and certificates of Daniel McCarty," and that journal in commenting on the winning of his horses, Volunteer and Silverlegs, on October 24th and 25th, 1769, respectively at the Annapolis course, 49 said: "Daniel McCarty, Esq., of Pope's Creek, Westmoreland County, Va., was another opulent gentleman of the old school and was a distinguished patron of the turf." 50 Colonel McCarty also raced other horses named Cub and Little Driver and at the Annapolis races in 1770 he won the Jockey Club purse of 100 guineas, run in four mile heats, with his horse, Silverlegs. Volunteer was out of Eclipse, referred to 51 as "O'Kelly's celebrated race horse that no competitor could put to his speed," 52 and Silverlegs was a full brother to Yorrick, "one of the most famous horses ever raced in Virginia." In 1789 at the Alexandria course, one of the Cedar Grove McCartys entered a horse against George Washington's Magnolia, but the President's horse won the race.
There is plenty of evidence also that the sturdy characteristics of the men of the name manifested themselves in many other ways with the passing of the years, and that the virile Irish blood of this old race made them a very independent people and of a class that seldom feared to strike out for themselves whenever opportuni-
[page 104]ties offered of improving their condition. Thus we find them among the frontier people, battling with the primitive conditions of the time, building up sparsely settled localities, laying out the highways, bridging the streams, cutting down the virgin forests, fighting the Indians and in many other ways paving the way for the march of civilization. And, amidst it all, bringing up families, many of whose members in turn struck out for new fields in the thinly settled Western States. In the early years of the last century we can trace these McCartys through Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, and across the Rockies even to the Pacific Coast, and while I have made very little effort to get in touch with the descendants of these people and learn their story, the fugitive references to the McCartys that I have found in local histories of the Western States indicate that in general they maintained the reputation of the family as pathfinders and pioneers.
Although the name is not perpetuated in the geography of Virginia, like those of other colonial families, yet in other Southern States the name is found to have been given to various places; although to none of any present-day importance. Such, for instance, as McCarthy in Prince George County, Maryland; McCarty in Johnson County, Georgia; McCarty in Hamilton County, Tennessee; McCarty in Harris County, Texas; McCarty in Webster County, West Virginia; McCarty in Johnson County, Missouri; McCarty in Garvin County, Oklahoma; McCartys in Carolina County, Maryland; McCartys in Valencia County, New Mexico; McCarty's Ferry in Choctaw County, Alabama; McCarthy in Carbon County, Montana, and McCarthy's Crossing in McHenry County, Illinois. In far away Alaska a McCarthy has left the imprint of his name in the geography of the
[page 105]Territory; in Lincoln County, Maine, there is a place called McCarty after one of its early settlers, in addition to which there are places named McCartyville in Shelby County, Ohio, and in Burlington County, New Jersey.
It will be observed that in many instances of descendants of the original immigrants, Dennis and Daniel, while their names are mentioned herein, I have made no effort to trace their careers, and these sketches may be accepted as a mere cursory glance at the history of the family in Virginia. But, even with the meager details furnished, I have no doubt that readers of this book will share in my surprise that the historians should have succeeded so well in keeping the McCartys out of American history. But, although they are practically ignored in history, we see in this one family alone evidences of the strength and influence of some of the early Irish settlers of the South. There is much more that could be said about the family, for much that is romantic is found in their lives. They gave many handsome women, courtly gentlemen and gallant soldiers to the Colony of Virginia. Like many of the descendants of the early settlers in the Carolinas and Virginia, they became a wealthy, proud and independent people. They dispensed their wealth with prodigality; the sons of the third and fourth generation in descent from Dennis of old Rappahannock, and Daniel of Westmoreland County led the easy lives of country gentlemen, when their country did not need their services in the council chamber or the field; the daughters were educated and fitted to hold place with elegance and dignity in the best society in the Colonies, several of them having married into leading families of the South. Their progeny are today scattered all over the land. They held their
[page 106]heads high, as befitted the descendants of the MacCarthaighs of the old Eugenian race, who were Kings of Munster and Princes of Desmond before the coming of the despoilers of their fair domains.
[page 107]CHAPTER IV
THE MC CARTHYS IN MARYLAND, THE CAROLINAS AND GEORGIA
Land records of Maryland in the seventeenth century--Large settlements of Irish colonists--Numerous land grants called after towns and cities in Ireland and by Irish family names--The "County of New Ireland" comprised New Connaught, New Leinster and New Munster--McCartys as Revolutionary patriots --Extracts from the Colonial Records of the Carolinas and Georgia--James McCarthy an early Schoolmaster in North Carolina--How Cornelius McCarthy "surrounded" and captured the English soldiers.About the same period that the MacCarthys located in that section of Virginia south and west of the Potomac, several Irish families also settled in the region east of the river, namely in Charles and Saint Mary's Counties, Maryland, and there is every reason to believe that the expatriation of these people from Ireland was coincidental with and arose from the same cause. The records preserved at the office of the Land Commissioner for the State of Maryland at Annapolis contain such familiar Irish names as O'Dwyer, O'Daly, O'Malley, Reilly, Hogan, Byrne, Murty, Connery, Connolly, Kelly, Whelan Callaghan, Lynch, Murphy, O'Neill, O'Bryan, and so on, among those who obtained grants of land in Charles and Saint Mary's Counties during the last quarter of the seventeenth or early in the eighteenth century, and since only one family named McCarthy appears in this part of Maryland at that period, the indications are that all other persons of the name who came to this section
[page 108]of the country settled in Virginia south and west of the Potomac River.
The records of the Land Commissioner's office for the State of Maryland contain data of extraordinary interest to students of early American history. These records are well preserved, considering their age; they include the names of the "Early Settlers, 1633 to 1680" and the years of their arrival in the Province, the "Certificates and Patents" issued to these settlers covering their allotments of land from the Proprietary Government, the ancient "Rent Rolls" of the various counties, and numerous wills and deeds, some dating back to the earliest settlements of Maryland.
It is not generally known that large numbers of Irish people settled in Maryland during the last quarter of the seventeenth century. Their names are found chiefly in the land and probate records of Cecil, Harford, Talbot, Ann Arundel and Baltimore Counties, and as early as 1684 part of Cecil and Harford Counties was named, in a Proclamation issued by Lord Baltimore, the "County of New Ireland," 1 which territory was divided into three parts named New Connaught, New Leinster and New Munster. New Connaught was a manor of eighty thousand acres established in the year 1680 by George Talbot of Castle Rooney, County Roscommon, Ireland, who was Surveyor-General of Maryland; New Leinster was named by Bryan O'Daly from Wicklow and New Munster by Edward O'Dwyer from Tipperary in 1683. The number of land grants patented in the names of Irish counties, towns and baronies and by Irish family names is astonishingly large, and one naturally wonders why there is no mention of them in early Maryland history!
[page 109]It was the custom in those days to have a patent for a tract of land recorded under a name selected by the patentee, and I have found in the seventeenth century records at Annapolis land grants named Dublin, Cork, Donegal, Limerick, Galway, Kerry, Kilkenny, Clare, Carlow, Tipperary, Wexford, Derry, Kinsale, Waterford, Clonmel, Letterkenny, Belfast, Tralee, Antrim, Killarney, and by other Irish place-names, in addition to which there were numerous land grants called after the surnames of the patentees! The name first given to the tract of land now occupied by the City of Baltimore was "Ely O'Carroll," after a Barony of the name in King's and Tipperary Counties, Ireland, owned by the O'Carroll family, and Baltimore comes from a Barony of the name in County Longford.
As to the McCarthys in colonial Maryland, it cannot be said that as much trace can be found of people of this name as in the adjoining Province of Virginia, and I am satisfied that comparatively few families of the name came to Maryland in colonial days. However, the name, with its several variations, appears 35 times in the muster rolls of the Maryland Militia and the regiments of the Continental Line, and in some cases the records show where the different units were mustered in; and according to these there were McCarthys in Frederick, Baltimore, Dorchester, Talbot, Queen Anne's, Kent, Cecil and Harford Counties of Maryland at the time of the Revolution.
The earliest mention of the name in Maryland records in under date of October 21, 1666. In the "Records of Certificates and Patents" 2 there is an entry to the effect that Hugh O'Neale received a warrant for four hundred acres of land "for transporting himself, Mary,
[page 110]his wife, his children, Daniel, Charles and Joy O'Neale, Peggy O'Moore and Jane McCartie to this Province." The date of the warrant was October 7, 1667, and while the location of the tract is not stated, yet since it is shown that Hugh O'Neale lived at Patuxent, Maryland, in all likelihood it was to this place that he brought the two Irish girls with his family. O'Neale was a person of some standing in Maryland at this time and was one of Lord Baltimore's active agents in the settlement and development of the Province. Hugh O'Neill, who received a warrant for lands in Maryland in 1659, is assumed to have been the same, and on January 20, 1667, "Captain Hugh O'Neill of Charles County" was granted a patent for four hundred acres of land "for transporting eight persons to the Province." He had lived at Newtown, Long Island, in the Province of New York, before coming to Maryland, and after the death of his wife in 1666, he married the widow of Adriaen van der Donck's estate was "confirmed by Royal Patent in 1666," on Mrs. O'Neale. 3
Among the "Early Settlers, 1633 to 1680," who are recorded in several large Libers under that title at the office of the Land Commissioner for the State of Maryland, I find the following:
|"Darby Macarty,||transported 1667"|
|"Katherine Carty,||transported 1671"|
|"Daniel Mackcharty,||transported 1674"|
|"Moses Maccarty,||immigrated 1675"|
|"Ellen Carthey,||transported 1678"|
|"William Carthey||transported 1678"|
|"Owen Carty,||transported 1678"|
|"Dennis Carty,||transported 1678"|
[page 111]These are exactly as the entries appear in the record, and there seems to be no further information concerning these people obtainable. What part of Maryland they were brought to, or what their fortunes were in the new country, there is no way whatever of ascertaining, although it is quite clear they were of the "redemptioner" class and were indentured as "servants" to Maryland or Virginia planters until such time as their terms of service, representing the cost of the passage, had expired. At that time it was the custom to grant each male servant fifty acres of land on the expiration of his term of service, unless he chose to remain in the employ of his "Master." In the case of Moses Maccarty, it will be noted that he "immigrated," while the others were "transported." That means that Moses came over voluntarily and was able to pay his own way.
From the probate records of Maryland we learn that "John Macardye" was one of the legatees under the will of Jeremiah Sullivan of Talbot County, aand that Sullivan's plantation was patented in the name of "Kingsale." The will was executed on February 24, 1673, and was admitted to probate on April 7, 1676. 4 John Mackart's will dated January 11, 1675, was probated on April 17, 1676, 5 and Timothy McCarty signed as a witness to the will of John Edmundson of Tredhaven Creek, Talbot County, on February 13, 1686. 6
"Patrick MackArtee" was named as executor and sole legatee under the will of Ann Browne of Charles County, dated January 17, 1697; probated March 5,
[page 112]1697. 7 Patrick MackArtee's own will is recorded in will book number fourteen, and shows the date as of October 5, 1716, and the date it was admitted to probate as of March 26, 1717. Curiously enough, his name is written in the Annapolis records of wills, "Patrick Mackette." He gave his dwelling plantation to his sons, Patrick, Edward and James MackArtee," and he appointed his wife, Rosamond, the executrix and residuary legatee of his estate. As an indication of the result of the misspelling of names in the colonial records, it is found that the descendants of "Patrick Mack Artee" became Mackatees and MacAtees, the reason for that, doubtless, being that the name was so recorded. Patrick's wife, Rosamond, made her will on March 3, 1716. Charles Mecarty witnessed the will of George Prouse of Dorchester County on January 23, 1696, probated February 17, 1696. 8 John "Marcarty" was a witness to the will of Henry Davis of Baltimore County on December 12, 1713. Timothy McCartley, whose name appears on the land records as McCarthey, witnessed the will of Jacob Blangey of Kent Island, Queen Anne's County, dated March 1, 1716, probated June 1, 1719; 9 and in the will of Henry Jennings, rector of William and Mary's Parish in Saint Mary's County, dated March 13, 1716, he directed "that the debt due Captain Mackartie be paid," and he also mentioned William and Terrence Sweeney among the legatees. 10 Who this "Captain Mackartie" was I am unable to ascertain.
In Baltimore County the name also appears at an early date. In the "Rent Roll of Baltimore County" 11
[page 113]there is an entry covering a survey on September 8, 1683, of a tract of land patented by Robert James in the name of Robin Hood's Forest", and the description in the survey warrant said the land was "part in possession of Samuel McCarty". The will of Daniel "Mecart" was recorded in the office of the Register of Wills for Cecil County 12 in the year 1702. Dennis MacCartie of Baltimore is referred to as "an indigent person" and was "imprisoned for debt" in Ann Arundel County, Md., but according to the "Minutes of the House of Delegates", he "escaped from gaol on May 21, 1705". Denid MacKartey witnessed the will of William Marratt, planter of Dorchester County, on March 5, 1719; 13 John "Macartes" was a witness to the will of Anthony Johnson of Baltimore County on March 30, 1718 14, and Timothy Macarty's name appears on the attestation clause of the will of William Watts of Talbot County on April 17, 1722. 15 In the muster roll of Maryland Colonial militia organized in 1746 for an expedition to Canada, the names of John and Alexander McCarty appear, with the dates of enlistment as June 7 and June 9, 1746, respectively. Charles McCartey and John McCartey served in the Somerset County militia in 1747 and Charles and John McCarty appear on the roster of a Talbot County militia company of the year 1748. These may have been the same men, however, Somerset and Talbot being adjoining Counties.
The "Rent Role of Frederick County" 16 at the Land Commissioner's office contains an entry of a grant to William Maccartie on February 27, 1755, of a tract of land known as "Mountain Glade", and the record of conveyances indicates that on March 6, 1773, one Henry
[page 114]Hill purchased the plantation from William McCarty. Adam McCarty is mentioned in a letter from Governor Sharpe of Maryland, dated Fort Frederick, June 28, 1758, as "head of a road building party between Fort Cumberland and Town Hill Creek." 17 "Con" McCarty was a resident of Annapolis in 1774. On May 25th of that year a public meeting was held by the people of the town "relative to the action of the British in blocking up the harbour of Boston." A protest was drawn up "on behalf of the friends of American liberty in Annapolis" and among the residents of the town who signed the document were "Con" McCarty, Daniel Dulany, 18 Edward Dogan, Thomas McKean and John Haragen.
"Thomas McCarty, age 22, Schoolmaster from Southwark," appears in a list of "Emigrants from England" 19 who sailed from London "for Maryland" in the week, January 9 to January 16, 1774, and "Gilbert Carty, age 21, farmer, from Ireland," also appears in a similar list of emigrants who sailed from London for Maryland during the week, April 10 to April 17, 1775. 20 James McCarty was a member of the Revolutionary Committee of Harford County in 1775 and his name also appears in a company of Rangers organized in that County in the same year. "Flurrance McCarty, age 21," is mentioned in Frederick County in 1776 and James McCarty was registered as a voter in that County in 1796. 21 Among the numerous Irish names in the
[page 115]records of the Register of Wills for Cecil County, either as devisors, executors or legatees are:
|John Carry in 1764,||Jeremiah McCarty in 1782,|
|Charles Carry in 1767,||Mary McCarty in 1782,|
|Hannah Carty in 1767,||John McCarty in 1782.|
The next appearance of the name in North Carolina records was when "the petition of Darby McCarty" was read at a meeting of the House of Assembly on February 3, 1735. The purport of the petition was "that Darby McCarty be exempted from Public Duty," and that the application was granted is seen from an entry in the record which contains "an order that the Cike Certifie to the same." 24 The reason for the request is not stated in the official transcript of the records as published by the Secretary of State, but since other similar petitions are recorded wherein the applicants stated they were serving in the militia in the
[page 116]wars with the Indians, it is probable that Darby McCarty claimed exemption as a colonial soldier. His name was again recorded on February 15, 1738, when there was read before the Assembly "the petition of Darby McCarty on behalf of his son, Dennis McCarty, Praying the said Dennis might be exempt from all Publick Duties and paying Taxes." 25 It is evident that Dennis McCarty was physically unable to perform such "publick duties" as may have been required of him, since the above-mentioned petition bears a notation in these words: "The same granted during such time he shall continue infirm."
On March 21, 1743, "the petition of Darby McCartie, praying for one hundred acres of land in Hyde County," 26 was read and approved by the Council of North Carolina and on tile same day, like petitions by people named Kearney, McClendon, Kennedy, Carrol, Duggin, Lynch and Kelley were also passed upon by the Council. On November 19, 1744, Darby McCarty again appeared before a Council meeting at New Bern and presented a petition praying for 640 acres of land in Hyde County, which was granted, and on March 13, 1746, he secured a further grant of 600 acres in the same County, and on this occasion his application was read in conjunction with similar petitions from Daniel Sullivan, Daniel Quillen and Bryan Conner.
George McCarthy is on record as the patentee of 300 acres of land in Craven County on November 27, 1744, 27 and as George "Maccarthy" he is mentioned in the Council Journals under date of December 4, 1744, as "Cike to the Committee on Claims this Session" and the Council ordered 25 pounds to be paid to him for his services
[page 117]as such. 28 That George McCarthy was active in local politics at this time may be assumed from the fact that, under "an Act of the General Assembly appointing Road Commissioners for the various Districts and Counties of North Carolina"--(Chapter 5 of the Laws of 1745)--he and four others were named "Commissioners of the Roads from the Town of New Bern to the Head of Trent River." 29 Richard McClure was "Clerk to the Committee on Public Accounts" and Michael Higgins, another Gael, was in the public service in the same year.
About 1749, we find the North Carolina McCarthys dropping the historic prefix from their names; as, for example, John Carthey and George Carthey, Junior, each of whom received a grant of 400 acres in Craven County on April 6, 1749; Andrew Carthey, 400 acres in Anson County on September 29, 1749; and in the next year John and George Carthey were awarded 600 and 800 acres respectively in Anson County. 30 In the same records where these entries appear may also be seen entries covering land grants to people named McGee, Higgins, McKenney, McManus, Cohalan, Lynch, McHenry, McDonald, McConnell, Fitzjarrold, 0'Neal, McGuyre, Gillespie, McDowell, O'Berry and O'Quinn, showing that there is no death of Irish names in the Colonial records of North Carolina.
In the probate records of Hyde County there is an entry showing that the will of Bailey McCarty, dated March 5, 1751, was proved on September 3rd of the same year, and among the legatees and executors were the decedent's brother, Dennis McCarty, his wife, Elenor, and Thomas Smith. Dennis McCarty's will, dated April 6, 1758, was admitted to probate in the June term of
[page 118]Court of the year 1759. 31 James Carthey was appointed "Justice of the Peace for Anson County" at a meeting of the Council at New Bern on April 1, 1751, 32 and "A True List of the Militia of Craven County as at October, 1745," 33 contains the name of Michael McCarty. In the "Minutes of a meeting of the House of Assembly" held on November 29, 1759, the following entry appears: "Mr. Harris laid before the House a Certificate from the County Court of Granville thereby Certifying that Cornelius McCarty, son of David McCarty, is a very infirm person and recommending him to be exempt from paying Public Taxes. Ordered to be exempt accordingly.
The signer of this order was Matthew Rowan, President of the Council and afterwards Governor of the Colony, who was a native of Carrickfergus, Ireland, as was his predecessor in office, the famous Irish economist, Arthur Dobbs.
An Irishman named James McCarthy was one of the early teachers of the youth of New Bern, N.C. In the Colonial Records, 34 there is a letter from Governor Tryon to the Bishop of London, dated New Bern, February 12, 1768, in which the Governor said: "The bearer hereof, Mr. James McCartney, a native of Ireland, waits on your Lordship for orders of ordination. I am induced to be an advocate for him with your Lordship in consequence of the warm recommendations I received in his behalf from the Speaker of the House of Assembly
[page 119]of this Province, under whose roof he lived for some time in the character of tutor to his children. Mr. McCartney was, during his residence in New Bern, employed as an Assistant to Mr. Tomlinson who speaks handsomely of his diligence in the school and 'regularity of life out of it." That this man's name was McCarthy is seen from a reference to him in 1767 as "teacher in the Newbern school," and in the Colonial Records 35 of May 1, 1771, he is referred to as "Revd. Mr. McCarty, Chaplain to the Army," and "Revd. Mr. McCarty of Granville Parish, Granville County, preached to the troops, April 20, 1771." 36
Daniel McCarty is recorded on March 25, 1771, as a member of the Tryon County militia, 37 and Florence McCarthy appears in the "Poll Book of Wilmington" of the year 1780, as certified to by the Sheriff of New Hanover County. 38 The name of "Mrs. McCartey" appears under date of March 17, 1788, as having been "killed by Indians in Hawkins County." Several Revolutionary soldiers of the name served in the North Carolina regiments of the militia and of the Continental Line. In an "Abstract of the Army Accounts for the North Carolina Line settled by the Commissioners at Halifax from the 1st of September, 1784, to the 1st of February, 1785," 39 appear these entries with the amount of pay due to each:
|Florence McCarthy, Lieutenant,||360.||5.||2.|
|William McCarthy, Sergeant,||60.||15.||8.|
[page 120]In addition to which there were paid to Timothy McCarthy all arrears of pay due to fifty-seven other soldiers, from which I judge him to have been an officer, although his name does not appear in any of the North Carolina muster-rolls that are now available. Florence McCarthy is referred to as "Deputy Quarter Master at Wilmington" in transactions of the General Assembly of December 13, 1785, 40 and "Timothy McKarty of Caswell County" is mentioned in the minutes of a meeting of the same body on November 25, 1786. 41 On November 9, 1789, there is an entry in the minutes of the General Assembly reading' "Petition of Daniel McCarthey received from the Senate," and the record further states it was "endorsed read and that au allowance be made to him (Daniel McCarthey) in consequence of a wound he received in the late War on board the Bellona Brig of War in an engagement with the Mary of London, which deprived him of his eyesight." However, a Committee of the House recommended "that as no provision appears to have been made by Law for the maintenance of seamen disabled on board of private vessels and as the Bellona at the time of the engagement aforesaid was neither in service of this State or the United States, the petition was rejected." 42 So Daniel McCarthey, in his infirmity, was thus deprived of any allowance in recognition of his services to his country!
In the burial records entered in the church register of St. Philip's Parish, Charleston, South Carolina, there appears an entry reading' "Thomas Macarty, July 23, 1732"; among the marriages is that of "William MacKartey and Ann Dennis" on February 9, 1740, and "Sarah McCarty, daughter of William and Mary Anne
[page 121]McCarty," was baptized in that church on November 27, 1741. Michael McKarty and Jane McKarty signed the parish register of the Church of St. James, Santee, S. C., on June 9, 1759, as witnesses to the marriage of Nicholas Bryan and Mary Williams. 43 At that time the church was near Echaw Creek, but in 1768 it was removed to a little place known as Wambaw Bridge in Berkeley County, a short distance from Williamsburg. It was erected for a colony of French Huguenots who first settled the district, but between 1730 and 1740 numbers of Irish people began to locate there and formed important settlements, and while the majority of the names in the parish register are French, there are also many Celtic names. Among them are noted such names as Callahan, Conner, Cockran, Dealey, Dayley, Egan, Fogartie, Logan, McCormick, MackDowell, Roche and Sullivan, besides the McKartys. These settlements are mentioned by the historians, Lossing 44 and Ramsay. 45 Leasing, in referring to this district at the time of the Revolution, calls it "a hotbed of rebellion," and it is known to have furnished a large number of recruits to the brigades of Marion and Sumter. Dennis and Alexander McCarty of the Third Regiment, South Carolina Line, and Jeremiah and Mathias McCarty of the First Regiment, Provincial troops of South Carolina, enlisted from the Irish settlements in Georgetown County, which is divided from Berkeley County by the Santee River.
The Journals of the Continental Congress show that "A Memorial of James Pyne, Captain, and Charles McCarthy, Lieutenant," was read before that body on
[page 122]July 22, 1780. 46 The document was dated July 18, 1780, and was an application for appointment as officers of the Continental Navy, but it is not clear that either was appointed and there is an entry in the Journals on October 25, 1780, stating that McCarthy was then "engaged in private service." On August 22, 1780, a "Petition of Charles McCarthy" was read, 47 and at a meeting of Congress held on September 28, 1780, it was "Ordered that a warrant issue on the Treasurer in favour of Charles McCarthy, for twenty thousand one hundred and sixty dollars, in full payment of the principal and interest of a set of exchange drawn by Major General Lincoln on the President of Congress for twenty thousand dollars, for which sum of twenty thousand dollars the said Major General Lincoln is to be accountable." 48 Who this Charles McCarthy was, I am unable to determine, but, since his name is coupled with that of Captain Pyne, who was from South Carolina, it is probable that he also was from that Province.
The earliest mention of people of this name in the records of the Colony of Georgia is under date of April 4, 1757, when Cornelius McCarthy and James Wemyss appeared at a meeting of the Governor and Council and their proposition "to repair the lighthouse on Tybee Island," at the mouth of the Savannah River, was accepted, 49 McCarthy was a carpenter and builder at Savannah. Fourteen years later, or on January 25, 1771, a long "Memorial of Cornelius McCarthy" was read at a meeting of the Governor and Council of Georgia in relation to the building of a new lighthouse.
[page 123]By a then recent Act of the Assembly a sum of 3000 pounds was appropriated for the purpose, and in his "Memorial" McCarthy said that since it was he who built the old lighthouse, he knew "it would stand repairs for many years" and he offered "to put it in a complete state of repair for 600 pounds." 50
Cornelius McCarthy seems to have been a substantial and useful citizen of the town of Savannah, and is on record as the recipient of several grants of land. On April 5, 1757, he received a grant of a lot in the town of Hardwicke; 51 on September 4, 1759, he petitioned "for a tract of 500 acres of land on the Great Ogechee River whereon to erect a saw mill," and on November 6th following he stated that he was "in want of some pine-barren land for sawing timber for building," and asked for "200 acres at the head of land granted to Patrick Brown near Augusta's swamp." Both grants were allowed by the Council. 52 On December 4, 1759, the Governor signed a grant in his favor for lots in Hardwicke and Savannah, 53 and on December 4, 1764, he received a grant of "350 acres in Christ Church Parish." 54
As a Revolutionary soldier, Cornelius McCarthy had an interesting career. It was he who built "the first County jail in Chatham County," Ga., and by a strange turn of fate, he himself was the first person to be incarcerated in the jail, having been arrested on a charge brought against him at the instance of the Royal Governor of Georgia for trying to induce citizens of Savannah to join a Revolutionary company which had been form-
[page 124]ing across the river in South Carolina! As a soldier, his name first appears on the roll of Captain John Jenkins' Company of South Carolina volunteer militia raised in June, 1775, but in October following Cornelius McCartey, who probably was the same man, is listed on the roll of Captain Darius Dalton's company of militia raised in Prince William Parish, S. C. However, when the Second South Carolina regiment of the Line was organized McCarthy joined it and became a Sergeant, and during the war, although no longer a young man, he performed several hazardous enterprises as a scout for General Francis Marion. An incident is related of him, which, while amusing, illustrates the resourcefulness of this Irish soldier. There was a time when Marion was in a very bad way for ammunition and supplies. The English army had over-run the Carolinas, and it was at that time that Marion was compelled to take to the swamps and the woods. He heard that General Nathaniel Greene was marching southward through Virginia to take the English in the rear, and so he made up his mind to try and effect a juncture with Greene. The man whom he selected to make the hazardous trip was Sergeant McCarthy. He performed this service in good shape, and one hot August day the Sergeant was returning alone through the woods, very near where he thought the camp of Marion ought to be, when all at once he heard voices. With the usual caution of a scout, he crept up one tree, and then another, and another, until at last he discovered in a clearing in the forest a number of men lying around with their coats off, and evidently in perfect safety, for the English had possession of the country at the time. They were partaking of their noonday meal. At the edge of the clearing, where it
[page 125]sloped down to where the soldiers were lying, their arms were stacked, and without a sentry. McCarthy discovered they were English soldiers. There were twentyone of them in all--twenty men in charge of an Ensign. He made up his mind that he needed those arms. So he crept along until he got to where the muskets were stacked, and after several trips took them all back into the woods and buried them in a gully. Then he marched boldly out into the clearing, blew a sharp whistle and shouted at the top of his voice, "Surround them! surround them!" Immediately the English soldiers took alarm, and started to run toward where their rifles had been, but McCarthy came forward with his rifle at rest and addressing the officer, said, "Now, prudence is the better part of valor. The woods here are filled with men. You are completely at our mercy. The men of my command have taken your rifles away. The best thing you can do is to take your men, and do it quick, and march in that direction," pointing to a path through the woods. The men looked at the officer sheepishly, and the officer looked at McCarthy, and seeing that he was not a man to be trifled with, he determined that "prudence was the better part of valor," so he gave the command to fall in! McCarthy, keeping a safe distance behind and threatening to kill the first man who turned his head around, marched those twenty-one men into the camp of Marion! McCarthy's Captain came out of his tent and when he saw all the English soldiers, he could not imagine what it meant, He thought at first they were deserters. But, all at once he saw McCarthy, and then he understood the situation. He broke into a fit of laughter, and said: "In the name of God, Sergeant, how did you do it ?" McCarthy was a good soldier, and so he came to the salute and in a rich Irish
[page 126]accent, said, "Arrah, Captain, and sure that same was aisy! Sure, I surrounded them!"
Of another Revolutionary soldier of Savannah, named Ebenezer McCarty, a Georgia historian 55 relates the following incident: "On the second of August (1775), Ebenezer McCarty, charged with enlisting Georgia recruits for the South Carolina regiments, was, by Chief Justice Stokes, committed without bail to the common jail of Savannah. A writ of habeas corpus having been applied for and denied, the citizens assembled, forced the jail and liberated the prisoner. Not content with this, they marched through the town with drums beating and passed the residences of the Governor and Chief Justice." The Governor mentioned this incident in a letter to Lord Dartmouth, the English Secretary of State, on August 7, 1775, in which he described the actions of the people as "unparalleled insolence" and as an illustration of "the situation to which His Majesty's government is reduced in the Province of Georgia." And all because of the fearless patriotism of a McCarthy, who, in all probability, was a descendant of an "Exile from Erin!"
Among the petitions for grants of land by persons named McCarthy, the following are mentioned in the Colonial Records of Georgia:
Petition by Florence McCarthy dated May 3, 1763, setting forth that he "had been three years in the Province from Bermuda, and had no land granted to him and was desirous to obtain land for cultivation, having a wife and two children; therefore praying for 200 acres at the head of South Newport," and at a meeting of the Council on April 3, 1764, a grant was signed by the Governor in favor of Florence McCarthy for "200 acres in Saint
[page 127]Andrews Parish." 56 Among those to whom "Head Rights" were granted by the Governor and Council between 1756 and 1759 are recorded Daniel, Florence, Charles, Henry and John McCarty. Daniel McCarty's petition for a land grant came before the Council in December, 1768, 57 and was allowed, and on the same day the petition of Francis Maccartan was also read. On November 6, 1770, a third petition on behalf of Daniel McCarty was acted upon by the Council, with the result that he was allotted "200 acres in St. Paul's Parish." 58 Jacob McCarty applied "for 200 acres of land on the Uchee Creek in St. Paul's Pariah" on April 30, 1770, and on March 5 1771, the Governor signed the grant in his favor. 59 On November 5, 1770, a like grant was awarded to John McCarty. There are also recorded among the land grants in Wilkes County, on file in the County Clerk's office at Washington, Ga., two grants in favor of Daniel and John McCarty between 1783 and 1800, in recognition of their services as soldiers of the Revolutionary army. Roger McCarthy is mentioned as "one of the first settlers in Jones County, Ga." and his name also appears on the first Grand Jury summoned in that County. 60
[page 128]CHAPTER V
THE MC CARTHYS IN LOUISIANA, ILLINOIS AND KENTUCKY
Chevalier Charles MacCarthy came to New Orleans in 1731--A valiant soldier of France-Governor of the "Illinois Country," under the French, 1755 to 1763-MacCarthys in the French Navy in the American Revolution-Three officers named McCarty served under Colonel George Rogers Clark in the conquest of the Northwest territory-Colonel M. Maccarty, a leading citizen of New Orleans-Dennis McCarthy of Lexington.It was not from Ireland alone that we find MacCarthys coming to America, but also from France, that historic country, which in times past furnished asylum to many thousands of the "Exiles from Erin." In the earliest established regiments of Irish troops in the service of France, namely those of General Justin MacCarthy (Lord Mountcashel), Colonel Daniel O'Brien (Viscount Clare) and Count Arthur Dillon, as well as in all subsequent formations of the Irish Brigade down to the Revolution under Louis XIV, the MacCarthy name appears among the officers. As already stated, Mountcashel had the distinction of being the first to receive a commission from King Louis as LieutenantGeneral of France, entitling him to command all the Irish troops taken into the French service, and for many years after the downfall of James the Second the Irish Brigade was maintained and strengthened by fresh recruits arriving from Ireland. Members of several branches of the ancient house of MacCarthy flourished in France with the honors of French nobility, including various Chevaliers of St. Louis; not a few of them
[page 129]are mentioned among men of literary talent, while others of the family won distinction in the military and civil services of Spain and Austria.
One of the Irish émigrés to France early in the eighteenth century was Charles MacCarthy, whom we first hear of in 1731 at the age of twenty-five, as a Captain in the French army, in which year he was sent to Louisiana in charge of a detachment of engineers. According to a biographical account of him in the collecttions of the Illinois historical Society 1 he was born in Ireland in the year 1706, and Bossu, the French traveler and historian, also states that he was a native of Ireland, 2 and it is evident that he was of a good family, since official documents relating to French affairs in this country refer to him as "Chevalier de Maccarty" and also as "Marquis McCarthy." He was also known as "MacCarthy Mac Tang," which means literally "MacCarthy, the son of Taig or Thaddeus." For many years he was stationed at New Orleans where he rose to the rank of Major, and from a number of authoritative sources we learn that he was an important colonial official and one who wielded great power during the period that he represented the French government in this country. M. Nikolai Bossu, in the celebrated account of his travels along the Mississippi River to what is now the State of Illinois, relates that the expedition set out from New Orleans in six boats on the 20th of August, 1751, and that "M. Mccarty, who is with us, has been appointed Commandant of the detachment by the Court." 3 Bossu states they arrived at their destination, old Fort
[page 130]Chartres, on the 28th of March, 1752, and from that time until 1760 Chevalier MacCarthy was in command at Fort Chartres and of all the French troops in the "Illinois Country," and until 1763 he was Governor of Illinois. De Rozier, in his History of the Early Settlements of the Mississippi Valley, states that " Chevlier de McCarthy, Major of Engineers, with troops from France, arrived at Fort Chartres in the latter part of 1751, 4 and took charge, bearing instructions owing to pending difficulties with England to repair the fort completely, and, to protect the territory for France. McCarthy erected nearly a new fort, and when finished about 1755 the war broke out between France and England." 5
Edward G. Mason, in "Old Fort Chartres," also says that "Chevalier de MaKarty arrived from France with a few companies of French troops in the autumn of 1751 under orders to rebuild the citadel of the Illinois Country," but that is obviously an error, since MacCarthy had been commandant at New Orleans for several years prior to that time. "Other detachments followed," he says, "until nearly a full regiment of French Grenadiers answered the roll-call at Fort Chartres. They toiled busily to transform it from a fortress of wood to one of stone under the skillful guidance of the trained officer, whose Irish blood as well as his French commission made hostile preparations against Great Britain a labor of love to him." 6
[page 131]In official correspondence concerning the French-English war MacCarthy is referred to frequently by both sides and these documents indicate clearly that the French Government depended much upon him for the maintenance of the territory, and that Fort Chartres, which he made his headquarters, was the most important post in its system of defenses. This fort was situated on the Mississippi River on the line of the French frontier at Old Kaskaskia, a short distance above the junction of the Kaskaskia and Mississippi Rivers in what is now Randolph County, Illinois. Captain Philip Pittman, who visited it in 1766, refers to it in his History of the European Settlements on the Mississippi, 7 as "the best built fort in North America," and Joseph Wallace 8 describes Fort Chartres as "a huge structure of masonry, an object of wonder and curiosity to all who ever beheld it; it was reared at an estimated cost of over five millions of livres, or about one million dollars. 9 It was so nearly completed by the beginning of 1756 that it was occupied by the Illinois Commandant and the archives of the local government were deposited therein."
In 1757, when it was reported that the English contemplated to descend the Tennessee River for the purpose of attacking the French posts on the Mississippi, MacCarthy sent Lieutenant Aubry to construct a fort on the Ohio River which he named Fort Ascension, "as a memorial of the day on which the first stone was laid," but in history it became known as Fort Massac. 10
[page 132]"An account of the Services of M. Aubry, Captain of Infantry in the army of the King in Louisiana," 11 says: "M. de Mccarty, Commander for the King, then (May 1, 1757) received certain news that the English who had large settlements up the Keraquis River, 12 were preparing to come down to enter the Belle Riviere 13 and from there into the Mississippi, with the design of corrupting the savages and afterwards taking possession of all the points which we occupied on the upper Mississippi. To oppose these projects, the success of which could only be fatal to the Colony of Louisiana, M. de Mccarty, Commandant of the Illinois, ordered M. Aubry to depart speedily with 150 Frenchmen, 100 savages and three pieces of cannon to establish a fort on the Belle Riviera as near as possible to the Keraquis River. In consequence of these orders, M. Aubry departed the 10th of May, and after having traveled over a large extant of country without meeting a single Englishman, he built a fort conformably to the instructions of M. de Mccarty in a place which, by its position and elevation, put the French in a position to oppose the attacks of the enemy more easily." The sites of these old forts are still objects of much historic interest, although it is probable that few Americans are aware that an Irishman was their builder and that he governed this vast terntory prior to its conquest by the English. 14
[page 133]As a result of the protection afforded by the proximity of Fort Chartres, numerous villages and settlements sprang up on both sides of the Mississippi River; most of the people were French Catholics, and here the Jesuit missionaries established churches and schools, and under the administration of the popular Franco-Irish Governor the settlements thrived and the people lived in peace with their Indian neighbors. One of the historians of the Mississippi Valley, in describing the social conditions among the pioneer settlers of this territory, says: "If ally differences arose which the parties could not settle, they were referred to the arbitration of the priest, or in the last resort, to the commandant at Fort Chartres, a mighty potentate ruling, in name at least, territories vaster than most kingdoms, representing all the power and wisdom of the French King and looked up to by the simple settlers as the perfection of all human strength and judgment." 15
Fort Duquesne on the Ohio River was also part of the French system of defenses, and after the defeat of Braddock in 1755 this fort came under the jurisdiction of MacCarthy. It was under the immediate command of Aubry, but in 1758, when Washington attacked it with large reinforcements of British and Colonial troops, the garrison surrendered and the fort thenceforward became known as Fort laity. That Chevalier MacCarthy had large forces under him is indicated by the fact that, in 1754 when "Captain de Villiers solicited MacCarthy to be allowed to go and avenge his brother's death," he ascended the Ohio River to attack Fort Necessity, and when marching to the assault the Indian outposts reported that "Villiers' followers were as numerous as
[page 134]the pigeons in the woods." 16 The French commander is referred to variously in Colonial records as "M. de McKarty, Commandant at the Illinois," 17 as "Monsieur de MacCarty, Commandant at Fort Chartres," 18 and in the New York Colonial Manuscripts 19 there are several letters between the French colonial officials in 1754 and 1756 in which he is referred to as "M. Maccarty" and "M. de MacKarty," one of which is an interesting communication addressed to "M. de MaKarty" from Marquis de Vandreuil, Governor-General of New France. 20
In 1760, MacCarthy was succeeded in the command of Fort Chartres by Captain de Villiers, and thereafter he continued as the head of the civil and military government of the territory, invested with powers of almost vice-regal character. Under the Treaty of Paris in 1763, France surrendered to England all her territory in America east of the Mississippi River and two years later the British army took possession of Fort Chartres. It is a remarkable fact that the British owed their capture of the fort to a countryman of MacCarthy. Gaine's New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury of May 19, 1766, printed the "Resolutions of the House of Representatives of the Freemen of the Province of Pennsylvania," in which they expressed their "approbation of the conduct of George Croghan, Esq., Deputy Superintendent of Indian affairs under the Honourable Sir William Johnson, Baronet, who in pursuance of his Excellency's Commands (General Gage), by his extensive Influence and weight with the Natives amidst the greatest Difficulties, under the Favour of Divine Provi-
[page 135]dance, has happily reconciled the Minds of many Sistine Nations of Indians to the British Interest and thereby obtained with their Consent a Passage for His Majesty's troops to Fort Chartres, which has at length enabled them to take possession of that important Fortress in the Illinois Country." George Croghan was a native of Sligo, Ireland, and he was perhaps one of the most noted Irishmen that came to the Colonies; and the fact is also of some interest that Sir William Johnson, the Colonial Governor under whose directions he acted in this affair, was a native of Smithtown, County Meath, Ireland, and was of the ancient Irish family of MacShane. 21
Instead of returning to France after the war, MacCarthy retired to Point Coupee in the lower Mississippi Valley, west of the river, which territory still remained in the possession of the French. Here he established himself as a trader and he seems also to have been placed in command of the fort at Point Coupee, since one M. de la Parine was appointed to that post in 1764 "to take the place of M. de MacCarty." 22 In the Jesuit Relations there is an account of the banishment of the Jesuits from Illinois and Louisiana and of their long journey of 450 leagues to New Orleans, written by Rev. Francois Philibert Watrin, and published at Paris in the year 1764, in which he relates how the travelers were entertained at the hacienda of Chevalier MacCarthy at Point Coupee. Father Watrin states that when "at
[page 136]seven or eight leagues from New Orleans, they reached the estate of Monsieur de MacCarty, former Lieutenant of the King in that City, who, by his kind attentions recalled to their remembrance the benevolence he had always shown at Illinois, where he had been Major-Commandant-General. After they arrived in town he gave them several tokens of his friendship." 23
Chevalier MacCarthy did not long enjoy his retirement, and in the Journal of D'Abadie, Director-General and Civil and Military Commander of the Province of Louisiana, 24 there is an account of his death and of his burial with military honors at New Orleans, on April 20, 1764. "On the twentieth (April) M. de MaCarty, former Lieutenant, died. I ordered out for his funeral a convoy of all the troops of the garrison, about eighty men, and a cannon was fired three times when the body left the house. Four officers were named to carry the poll. Although these honors were not due M. de Mccarty, I have had them rendered out of considerstion for his family and his memory." In 1764, the French Government conferred upon MacCarthy the posthumous honor of the Cross of St. Louis, "as a reward for his fidelity and services."
According to the Journal of D'Abadie, Chevalier MacCarthy was a man of family, but I have been unable to find any reference to his marriage or to his descendants. One of the Governors of Louisiana under the Spanish from 1785 to 1791, Don Estavan Miro, member of a distinguished family of Catalonia, married a lady named McCarthy who is referred to by Louisiana historians as "a de Mccarty of a noble Irish family which
[page 137]had followed James II to France." 25 Gayarre says that she was a native of New Orleans, so we may assume that Madame Miro was a daughter of Chevalier MacCarthy. Thirty years after his death, on November 29, 1794, his nephew, Florence MacCarthy, Lieutenant in the French navy, presented a petition to the French Minister of Marine, in which he said that he was "the son of Callaghan de MacCarthy and of Dame Marianne, also by birth a MacCarthy," and stating he had "made two successive voyages to America to obtain an equitable settlement relative to a small inheritance which has been in suspense for thirteen years, which belonged to his uncle, a Knight of St. Louis, who died in 1764 after forty years service in the French army." There can be no doubt that the "Knight of St. Louis" here referred to was Chevalier MacCarthy.
In the early part of the last century there was a Colonel A. Maccarty, a prominent citizen of New Orleans, who may have been a descendant of the Chevalier. In a famous controversy known in history as "The Batture of New Orleans," between the United States and Edward Livingston, in which the government maintained the right of the nation to the use of the beaches and the bed of the Mississippi River adjacent to New Orleans, Thomas Jefferson prepared the brief for the government attorneys. The dispute between Livingston and the public became very bitter and the former endeavored to maintain his position by force of arms, but on various occasions the people gathered and drove off Livingston's employee. At length it was agreed that the people appoint a representative to present their case
[page 138]to the government, and in his brief for counsel Jefferson stated that " Colonel MacCarty, by general and repeated acclamations, was nominated an agent to bear to the President of the United States a statement of their grievances and that the Governor would recommend the agent to the government." 26 Much of this controversy is also related by Gayarre, 27 and from him we obtain glimpses of the prominent place in the politics of the City of New Orleans held by Colonel Maccarty. He was one of ten persons selected by the House of Representatives in session at New Orleans on November 4, 1805, from whom the President of the United States was to form "a Legislative Council of five for the Territory of Louisiana," and Colonel MacCarty was one of the five chosen for that important office. There was a Lawrence B. Mccarty also in New Orleans, who in 1812, was appointed by Governor Claiborne Secretary of State for the State of Louisiana. I assume that these two were descendants of Chevalier Charles MacCarthy.
Several references to Chevalier MacCarthy describe him as "M. de Mccarty Mystique" 28 and in this connection it is noted that the name of the commandant of Le Magnifique, one of the vessels of the French fleet which came to our aid in the Revolution, is described as "Monsieur Mccarty de Mystique," which suggests the possibility that the latter was a son of "Mccarty de Mactique." The name of the commander of Le Magnifique was Charles MacCarthy, and in Burke's General Armory 29 the learned Irish heraldist states that he was descended from the MacCarthy Reagh branch of the
[page 139]family. And, since it is known that Callaghan MacCarthy, the father of the Lieutenant before refered to, was of the MacCarthy Reagh branch, it is clear that the naval officer and the former French Governor of IIIinois were closely related. The Captain of Le Magnifique is also mentioned by Edward Everett Hale in his Naval History of the Revolution. 30 Hale says "there exists within reach in America the Ms. journals of Maccarty, the commander of one vessel of D'Estaing's fleet. He was transferred to the America in Portsmouth after the loss of the Magnifique in Boston harbor. I have a translation of the Journal of the period when he was Captain of the Magnifique and while he was superintending the completion of the American ships."
Other MacCarthys who served in the French Navy in the war of the Revolution, and who doubtless were descendants of Irish exiles to France, were "Monsieur MacCarty," Ensign on Le Conquerant; Du Fay de Carty, Ensign on Le Magnifique, and Edward MacCarthy, Lieutenant under the famous Captain John Paul Jones; and among the officers of the army of Rochambeau serving in this country was "Monsieur Mac Carty." In the John Paul Jones manuscripts at the Library of Congress frequent mention is made of Irish military and naval officers in the service of France, and of other people of Irish birth or blood, who took part in the struggle for American liberty. In these papers there is a letter to Jones from Chevalier de Fitz-Maurice, a Captain in Walsh's Irish regiment of the French army, dated Quimber, France, February 5, 1779, recommending "M. Eugene MacCarthy," and one month later Lieutenant Eugene MacCarthy himself wrote Jones stating that he desired "to make a Campaigne... under
[page 140]command of a Gentleman who has distinguished himself by his Superior Talents." It is evident that Lieutenant MacCarthy was appointed to the position he sought, and that he served under Captain Jones, for in a letter from "Comte de Walsh-Serrant, Colonel of the Irish Regiment of Marine Artillery, French army," from Paimboeuf, France, on June 14, 1779, the writer said that "the reputation of Jones in Walsh's regiment is such that (James Gerald) O'Kelly, sub-lieutenant of Grenadiers, wishes to join his two comrades (Edward) Stack and (Eugene) Mac Carthy, in serving under his command, and feels it best that O'Kelly should serve against the common foe wherever he wishes." And since a letter to Jones from Stack's father, dated Paimboeuf, October 21, 1779, refers to him as serving as "Lieutenant-Colonel of Marines on the Bon Homme Richard," it may be assumed that Lieutenant MacCarthy also served in the same ship.
That there is warrant for this assumption appears from another document in the Jones papers, this being "a Certificate regarding Commodore Jones" dated Paris, April 17, 1785, signed by Eugene Mac Carthy, then a Captain in the Regiment de Walsh. This document certified that "at the time of the action between the Serapis and the Bon Homme Richard, the latter vessel was rendered unseaworthy, that on deciding to abandon her, the care incidental to transporting the wounded to the Serapis prevented Jones from saving his personal effects or those of the crew." A similar certificate signed by Captain Edward Stack, dated Paris, April 19, 1785, is also among the Jones papers. Captain MacCarthy was also referred to by Jones in a letter dated Paris, July 18, 1785, to George Washington at Mount Vernon, vending him "certificates as to candi-
[page 141]dacy of Eugene Maccarty for membership in the Society of the Cincinnati." 31
Three officers of the name, who are mentioned in connection with the fighting in Illinois during the Revolutionary war, were Captains, John McCartey, Richard McCarty and Richard McCarthy. The only reference to the former that I have been able to find is in the Draper Manuscripts, 32 wherein he is mentioned as "Captain John McCartey, an officer of the Illinois Battalion" 33 in 1779. Captain Richard McCarty was of the Virginia branch of the family and is mentioned in a "Roll of Officers and Soldiers who were allotted lands in Clark's Grant (Indiana) for services under Colonel George Rogers Clark in the reduction of the British posts in the Illinois," and on April 22, 1784, he received a grant of four thousand acres of land in Kentucky for Revolutionary services. Among other soldiers to whom land bounty warrants in Kentucky were given 34 for Revolutionary services were:
Charles McCarty, 200 acres; date of warrant, April 22, 1783.
Peter McCarthy, 200 acres; date of warrant October 21, 1783.
James McCartee 100 acres; Sate of warrant November 8, 1784.
Timothy McCarty, 200 acres; date of warrant, July 11, 1786.
The conquest of the Illinois territory from the British, one of the most brilliant achievements of the Revo-
[page 142]lution, was carried out by Colonel Clark. His army was made up chiefly from the country west of the Allegheny mountains, and the names on the muster-rolls indicate that a large proportion of them were Irish, either by birth or descent. William H. English, 35 author of Conquest of the Northwest Territory, says : "had it not been for the Irish in Clark's command, the latter would never have whipped the British and Indians; the Irish, fresh from prosecutions in the old country, were very bitter against the English and were of great help to Clark." 36 In his own written account of the expedition Colonel Clark mentioned among his valued officers Captains McCarty, Quirk, Carney and O'Hara, "Captain Montgomery, a gallant Irishman," and Lieutenant Dalton. According to Judge Lewis Collins, one of the historians of Kentucky, Captain Richard McCarty was one of the pioneer settlers of Mason County, and it is probable that it was in this section that he located his grant. It is also stated that in a conflict with a band of Indians near the River Raisin in the spring of 1793 Captain McCarty commanded the Kentuckians, was taken prisoner and led into captivity, but was purchased from the Indian chief on the restoration of peace. He and a Captain Baker are said to have been the only captives to escape, the others having all been tomahawked. Captain Richard McCarthy is described in documents in the Canadian Archives 37 as a "trader from this post (Michilimakinac), August 15, 1778, to the Illinois." The place here mentioned is situated in the northern peninsula of Michigan, and is now khoum as Mackinac.
[page 143]In the "Record Book of Colonel John Todd," the first Civil Governor of Illinois, now in the possession of the Chicago Historical Society, there appears a "License for Trade" permitting "Richard McCarthy, Gentleman, to traffick and merchandise with all the liege Subjects and Friends of the United States of America, of what nation soever they be, and to erect Factories or Stores at any convenient place or places he shall think proper within the Commonwealth." This license was given "under the hand and seal of Colonel John Todd at Kaskaskia on June 5, 1779, in the third year of the Commonwealth." 38
It appears, however, that Captain McCarthy had been a trader in the Northwest Territory as early as 1768 and he is mentioned frequently in the records of Cahokia, Illinois, a place on the Mississippi River above St. Louis, famous for its ancient mounds. In the Clark manuscripts now in the Virginia State archives, as well as in the "Journal of Major Joseph Bowman" at the Library of Congress, Captain McCarthy is mentioned as commander of "French volunteers" under Colonel Clark, and De Rozier, in his account of the recapture Of Vincennes from the British, refers to "one company of men organized at Cahokia, commanded by the brave Chevalier McCarthy." 39 Another reference to him in the records of the expedition read as follows: "Captain Richard McCarty was a trader in the English service up to the time of the capture of Kaskaskia. He came from Canada and located at Cahokia. He was made commandant at this post in August 1779, but soon came into conflict with the civil authorities."
[page 144]In 1778, he was "Clerk of the Court of the Committee of Cahokia," the local governing body established by Colonel Clark, and many of the documents relating to the business of the court and the expedition into Illinois, all in the French language, are in Captain Richard McCarthy's handwriting. One of them is dated October 29, 1778, and relates to "the prayer of Dominique O'Flanigan" in a cause against a French settler named Antoine Harmand. One account of his Career in the Cahokia records conflicts somewhat with the foregoing. It says that "Richard McCarthy came from the Colony of Connecticut. He was living in Cahokia before 1776 and built a mill there on some land he had preempted. At the coming of Clark he joined the Illinois Battalion and took part in the Vincennes expedition. In the Fall of 1779 he was appointed commandant of Fort Bowman at Cahokia and made himself very unpopular with the inhabitants."
While this account says he "came from the Colony of Connecticut," there is little doubt of its inaccuracy, in view of the fact that the Clark and Bowman journals of the war state he was commander of "French Volunteers," and the further fact that he is styled " Chevalier McCarthy" and that he was appointed "Clerk of the Court" whose proceedings were conducted largely in the French language. In my opinion, he was either an Irishman who emigrated to France and thence to the French settlements in Canada, or he was a native of France. He had an adventurous career as trader and soldier, and in the Spring of 1781 we are told "he was killed by the Indians while carrying a petition from the inhabitants to the Governor of Virginia." 40
[page 145]Thomas McCarthy also served under George Rogers Clark, and in 1782 his name is found among a number of discharged soldiers of the expedition who made a settlement on Corn Island in the Ohio River, at the head of the falls opposite where the City of Louisville now stands. 41 In the early settlement of Lexington, Kentucky, John Carty is mentioned. He is said to have been born in New Jersey in 1764, emigrated to Kentucky shortly after the close of the Revolution and fought against the Indians at the battle of Fallen Timber under General Anthony Wayne. He is referred to by a local historian as "one of the most respected citizens of Lexington," and as "the most successful Kentucky merchant of his time, a man of remarkable judgment and sagacity, generous and popular."
Another of the name, Dennis McCarthy, also settled in Kentucky some time after the close of the Revolutionary war. Bishop Spalding, in his account of the early Catholic missions in Kentucky, in describing the journey of two French priests, Fathers Badin and Barrieres, who were sent to those distant settlements by Bishop Carroll, relates that after their appointment to the mission in Kentucky they set out from Georgetown, D. C., in September, 1793, walking as far as Pittsburg and then going down the Ohio in a flat boat, ministering on the way to the people of the scattered settlements along the river. On their arrival at Lexington they were received with open arms by the residents of the little town, where, we are told, "they celebrated the first divine service held in Kentucky at the house of Dennis Mc-
[page 146]Carthy, an Irish Catholic." Father Barrier's pursued His journey to New Orleans, but the encouraging recaption given to the priests by Dennis McCarthy and his neighbors, prompted Father Badin to settle down permanently in Lexington, and in the primitive settlements clustered there and there in the valleys and foothills of the Kentucky Mountains he spent twenty years caring for the Catholic families who were scattered over a wide territory. That many of these were Irish is indicated by the large number of old Irish Catholic names that appear in the early records of Kentucky.
The Dennis McCarthy here referred to had been a soldier in the Pennsylvania Cavalry under the command of Colonel Stephen Moylan, enlisting on February 19, 1777, and serving to the end of the war, after which he continued for some time in Moylan's employ as a clerk. Three McCarthys, Dennis, William and Daniel, served under Moylan in the Fourth Pennsylvania Dragoons and their names may be found in the muster-rolls of the regiment. 42 Colonel Moylan warned considerable distinction as commander of the Fourth Pennsylvania Dragoons, better known as "Moylan's Cavalry," and at one period he was private secretary to General Washington. He was a native of the City of Cork, Ireland, and was a brother of the Catholic Bishop of that diocese. Another western pioneer of the name was John McCarty, who lived at the "Byrd Settlement" on Byrd Creek, near Cape Girardeau, Missouri, in 1799. 43
[page 147]CHAPTER VI
THE MC CARTYS IN PENNSYLVANIA AND DELAWARE
Early settlers in Bucks County--The Irish "redemptioners"-- Large immigrations from Ireland of the old Celtic stock-- McCartys in the Colonial Wars--McCartys as mariners--Captain Daniel McCarthy, a noted sea captain of his time-- Large number of McCartys recorded as land owners in the eighteenth century--Thomas McCarthy served on Washington's Body-Guard.The present State of Delaware originally was part of Pennsylvania and was known as the "Three Lower Counties." In an official document 1 concerning the earliest period of the history of this territory the name MacCarthy appears, in the person of Charlotte, daughter of Donogh, Earl of Clan Carthy, who married Lord Delawarr after whom the State and the Delaware River were named. But, the earliest permanent settler of the name in Delaware seems to have been one Daniel MacCarthy whose name appears in the record of the Colony four years before William Penn entered into his famous "League of Amity" with the Delaware Indians at Shackamaxon, Pa., in 1682. In the records of the Court of New Castle County, 2 the name of "Daniell MaKarty," as the plaintiff in an action at law against Jeremiah Herrington, is entered under date of December 3, 1678, and as "Daniel MacKerty" he figured in several other suits at law in the same court, and at a session of the court on February 4, 1680, "Daniel MaKarty's
[page 148]petieon" for a grant of two hundred acres of land was passed upon and approved. A Daniel McCarthy who is mentioned in the Pennsylvania Archives 3 under date of October 10, 1683, among "persons to whom warrants for lands in Kent, New Castle, and Sussex Counties, Delaware, were issued," doubtless was the "Daniell MaKarty" mentioned in the court records.
In other Delaware records the name is also found, as for example "John McKarty of Black Creek Hundred, New Castle County," who made his will on December 1, 1694, appointing his wife, "Mary McKarta," his executrix and sole beneficiary. 4 And, that it is evident there were other families of the name in New Castle County in the eighteenth century is shown by the number of McCarthys whose marriages are recorded in the Parish Registers of Holy Trinity Church at Wilmington. Elsa MacKarty was married in that church to Dennis Mackginley on August 10, 1735; Robert McCarthy married Elizabeth Plate in 1744, and Elizabeth McCarty became the wife of John Moore in October, 1745. Others of the name appear in the marriage records of this church down to 1774.
In "Trent's Philadelphia Business Directory" of the year 1703 appear the names of Thomas McCarty and "John MacKarty, ye barber." This seems to be the earliest date on which people of the name are recorded in the present State of Pennsylvania. In the burial records of Christ Church, Philadelphia, I find the following entries:
"Rebecca MacKarty, wife of Timothy, May 11, 1712"
"Charles MacKarty, May 18, 1714"
"Charles McCarty, February 4, 1733"
"Sarah McCarty, October 2, 1746"
[page 149]Under "Landholders in Philadelphia County, 1734," 5 one Thomas McCarty is listed as the owner of a tract of land in Moorland Manor, and among his neighbors at the time were Edward Burke, Richard Reagan, Andrew MeCleary, Francis McHenry and Patrick Kelly. 6 At this early period it is evident there was a considerable Irish settlement in this part of Pennsylvania, since the land records of Philadelphia County refer to places named Limerick and Dublin, and even before Philadelphia was laid out, part of the land within the City limits was known as "Lower Dublin," and the Penneback River which flows through that district was known as "Dublin Creek," and in 1698 it was called "Dublin River" in a map drawn by Thomas Holme, one of Penn's Commissioners and Surveyor-General for Pennsylvania. 7
Bucks County seems to have attracted many of the Irish immigrants arriving via the Delaware River during the first quarter of the eighteenth century, and in the early records of that section of the State their names are found in goodly numbers. At a place called Haycock Run about twelve miles north of Doylestown, the County seat of Bucks County, there were a number of McCartys, evidently relatives, who came from Ireland between the years 1730 and 1737, and some of their descendants are since mentioned among the conspicuous families of the County. The earliest reference to a person of the name in this region is in the New Jersey Archives 8 under date of October 25, 1733, when a marriage
[page 150]license was issued in New Jersey to "Daniel McCarty of Bucks County and Olive Titus." The place where the license was issued is not stated in the Archives, but in all probability it was in Warren County, directly across the Delaware River from Bucks.
By a deed dated March 11, 1737, 9 Thomas and Richard Penn, for a consideration of 38 pounds and "a yearly rental of one-half penny per acre," conveyed 250 acres of land in Nockamixon Township, Bucks County, to Edward McCarty, and in describing the boundaries of the tract the deed mentions "the lands of John Durham and Thomas McCarty," which indicates that the latter was already a settler in this place. There is another deed on record in Bucks County covering a second tract of 250 acres, sold by the Penns to Edward McCarty on April 19, 1738, 10 and in the same record there is a deed dated March 3, 1738, from Thomas and Richard Penn to Silas McCarthy for 215 acres in Nockamixon Township, and the tax lists show that he and his son, Carroll McCarthy, settled on these lands. Silas McCarthy is mentioned five times down to 1749 in the Pennsylvania Archives 11 among "Warrantees of Land in Bucks County."
The earliest recorded marriage in Nockamixon Township was that of Patrick McCarthy and Catherine Ann Sanders on February 14, 1743, and the first burial recorded there was that of "Catherine, wife of Edward McCarthy." One of the oldest tombstones in the burial ground of the Catholic Church of Saint John the Baptist at Haycock Run bears the folliwng inscription: "Here lies the remains of Unity Casey, wife of Nicholas Mc-
[page 151]Carty, who departed this life the first day of June, A.D. 1745, aged about 70 years, R. I. P."
James McCarty is recorded among "Warrantees of lands in Bucks County" under date of April 15, 1746, and again on December 31, 1750. Among the settlers who came into the Township of Nockamixon in the year 1748 were "Thomas and Patrick McCarthy, brothers, from Ireland," 12 who located on Haycock Run on a tract of 500 acres, and in course of time the records of grants and conveyances of land in the vicinity show that they increased their holdings considerably, and some of their descendants still occupy a portion of the original tract. Nearly every historian of Pennsylvania, and indeed the historians of all parts of the Colonies, insist upon saying that the early emigrations from Ireland comprised only the so-called "Scotch-Irish" element, that is to say, non-Catholics of original Scotch ancestry from the north of Ireland. They have an ulterior purpose that is well understood in thus describing these people, but the truth gradually is becoming known, not only as to the racial origin but as to the religious affiliations of the great majority of the early Irish settlers. 13 It is evident that at this early period there were large settlements of Irish and German Catholics in Bucks County, and after the Rev. Father Schneider came there on a mission from the Catholic Church of Goshenhoppen, Pa., the first permanent Catholic mission was established in the house of Edward McCarty at Haycock Run, and here Father Schneider celebrated the first Catholic religious services in that part of the country. Subse-
[page 152]quently, the mission was conducted in the house of Edward's son, Nicholas McCarty.
There are also records showing that Rev. Mr. Schneider baptized the children of a number of the Irish settlers, and among these are recorded the baptism, "at Christian Haug's house at Tinicum," of Nicholas and Edward McCarty, sons of the first-mentioned Edward, on May 27, 1742. The McCartys recognized early the necessity of educating the youth of the district, and it is noted that one of the provisions in the will of Nicholas McCarty, recorded in the year 1766, was "for the schooling of his children until the youngest was eighteen years of age." The family were consistent friends of public education and it is related that "the first school in this part of the county was erected near Thomas McCarty's dwelling on lands donated by him for that purpose," 14 and it was through the exertions of this family that a Catholic parochial school was established at Nockamixon about the close of the Revolution. On May 16, 1796, John McCarty and Elizabeth, his wife, executed a deed conveying to the Rev. John Carroll, Bishop of Baltimore, one acre of land in Haycock township, "for a consideration of encouraging the worship of God and for the further consideration of the sum of five shillings." 15 On this land the first Catholic Church edifice in the county was erected in the year 1798, and it was also a McCarty who later gave the ground for the building of a rectory. The church served also as a school and one of its teachers in the early part of the last century was Philip O'Connell, an emigrant from County Longford, Ireland. Most of the descendants of the original Bucks County settlers adhered consistently to the Catholic faith, and they are
[page 153]among the comparatively few American families, descended from Catholic immigrants of Colonial days, who have clung to the faith of their fathers despite the vicissitudes through which it has passed.
Several McCartys from this neighborhood served in the Continental army and in the Pennsylvania militia during the Revolution, among the first to enlist having been Patrick and Thomas McCarty from Haycock Township, whose names appear on the rolls of Captain Manus Yost's company of the First Regiment of Foot of Bucks County Militia, commanded by Colonel John Keller. Thomas was then only sixteen years of age and up to the time of his death in 1834 he drew a pension from the United States government for revolutionary services. Patrick left many descendants, and, that they were people of courage and endurance, is seen from the fact that nearly all the sons in the family, as soon as they came of age, struck out for themselves in the new settlements which began to spring up here and there in the Western States during the early part of the last century, and in local histories we find occasional references to these McCartys among the farming communities and as tradesmen in the pioneer towns of the Middle West.
One of Patrick McCarty's sons, Benjamin, born in Bucks County in 1763, by his marriage with Mary Small-wood was the father of fourteen children, nine of whom married and brought up families, and whose descendants are now living in various parts of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan and Western Pennsylvania. Benjamin is on record as acquiring a plot of land in Northampton County, Pa., on July 24, 1815, 16 and thirty years later he removed to Northumberland County where he received
[page 154]a grant of 20 acres of land, 17 but some time thereafter he removed with his family to the little prairie town aptly named Rolling Prairie, in LaPorte County, Indiana, where he died in 1828. His son, Andrew, settled in Michigan and another son, James, at Xenia, Ohio, in 1832, at that time a frontier settlement. James is described by the historian of Green County, Ohio, as "an extensive farmer and a leading and active man in County affairs." His son, Charles E. McCarty, was an officer of Ohio cavalry in the Civil War.
Judge William M. McCarty, who was born at Brookville, Franklin County, Indiana, in 1816, is also thought to have been one of Patrick's descendants. He is mentioned as a prominent lawyer at Cincinnati. When the call came for troops on the outbreak of the war with Mexico, he raised a regiment and became its LieutenantColonel and served with it throughout the whole war. This regiment was highly complimented for its conduct at the battle of Buena Vista. After the war he became a State Senator, and was Judge of the United States Circuit Court from 1850 to 1855, and in 1861 he was chosen United States Senator, but for some reason did not obtain his seat.
In Franklin County, Indiana, history, references are also made to Jonathan McCarty, and although he is described as "General," I am unable to find a record of any military officer of the name. One account says "he was born in Tennessee of Irish extraction" and another that "he was born in Virginia on August 3, 1795," and "was brought up on his father's farm near the village of Brookville, Franklin County." His brother was Clerk of the Court and while assisting in the duties of that office he studied law and was elected
[page 155]to the legislature from Franklin County. Sometime thereafter he removed to Connersville, Fayette County, where he was the first clerk of the courts, serving in that capacity until 1828. In 1831 he was elected to Congress, serving until 1837. The County historian says of him: "He was a man of limited scholastic training, but possessed of great natural powers, and was one of the most talented men of Indiana and a forceful and eloquent speaker." 18 There is another family of the name in Tippecanoe County, Indiana, although it does not appear that these were of the same immediate family. The first of the name in that section was William McCarty, who, when a very young man, made the long journey on horseback from Cape May County, New Jersey, to Indiana, where he lived the remainder of his life. A local historian refers to him as "one of the brave old pioneers of Tippecanoe County." 19 His son, Flavius Josephus McCarty, served in the Fifth Indiana Cavalry and had a brave record in the Civil War.
The genealogy of the Lancaster family of Bucks County shows that Thomas McCarthy was married to Phebe Lancaster in the year 1765, but there is nothing to indicate if he was the same Thomas McCarthy who came from Ireland with his brother Patrick in 1748. Thomas and Phebe McCarthy removed to Northampton County where eighteen children were born to them, and about 1790 they removed to Muncy, Pa., where Thomas died in the year 1804. The names of seven McCartys appear among the "Taxables" at Muncy in the year 1796. The records of the births of this remarkably large family of children are:
|Phebe,||born||August 2, 1766|
|Samuel,||"||November 8, 1767|
|Silas,||"||November 3, 1768|
|Sarah,||"||December 19, 1769|
|Mary,||"||December 19, 1769|
|John,||"||December 16, 1771|
|John (2nd),||"||May 6, 1773|
|James,||"||June 10, 1774|
|Jane,||"||September 18, 1775|
|Elizabeth,||"||September 17, 1776|
|Thomas,||"||March 8, 1778|
|Job,||"||August 10, 1779|
|Hannah,||"||February 22, 1782|
|Benjamin,||"||July 20, 1783|
|Martha,||"||April 24, 1785|
|David Lancaster,||"||December 13, 1787|
|Jesse,||"||April 10, 1789|
|Lydia,||"||August 16, 1790.|
The descendants of Thomas and Phebe McCarthy now reside in widely-separated parts of the country, and according to the Lancaster genealogy, sixty-two pages of which are occupied by McCartys, they are in almost every State of the Union and, all told, ninety-three McCartys are mentioned in the Lancaster genealogy. Another Phebe Lancaster married John Murphy, whose record is decidedly interesting. It reads thus: "Born 1763; died May 21, 1852; he was one of the first settlers of the town of Locke, Cayuga County, New York, and resided on a farm of 200 acres; served his country in the Revolutionary war in Captain Matchin's Company and in Colonel John Lamb's artillery; was present at the siege and surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown and continued with the army until the close of the struggle." 20
Usually, the colonial immigrants were classified as
[page 157]"passengers," "redemptioners" or "indentured servants." The "passengers" were those who were able to meet the expenses of the voyage and were otherwise equipped to make their own way in the world without becoming a charge upon the country, and the "redemptioners" were those who, being unable to pay their own passage, bargained with the masters or owners of vessels to dispose of their "time" to the planters or manufacturers, and when they had "redeemed" themselves, they were free to go as they chose and work out their own destinies. As to the third class, it would be a mistake to assume that by "servants" were meant domestic servants only. In those days all laborers, artisans, husbandmen, tradesmen, mechanics, in fact all who labored with their hands, were classed as "servants," and instances are found where even "manufacturers" and "schoolmasters" were so designated! And indeed, it is a sad commentary upon the conditions then prevailing that the "time" of some of the Irish immigrant schoolmasters brought no higher price than that of the common laborer! The term "servants," therefore, was intended and used in its broadest sense, and many of those recorded under this head were among the most useful classes that came to the Colonies, for it is hardly necessary to say that what the country needed most at that time were people inured to toil and who were ready to meet the hard tasks that confronted the pioneers in a new and undeveloped country.
When the servants were illtreated by their masters, as was frequently the case, they "ran away" and sought new fields, and in the colonial newspapers may be seen numerous advertisements for runaway servants offering rewards for their apprehension and return. While the "runaway servants" were of various nationalities, a
[page 158]great many of them were Irish. In the advertisements complete descriptions were given of their personal appearance, and there are many instances where the fact that "he writes a good hand," or "he speaks good English," was suggested as a means of identifying the "runaway." And there are even cases where Irish "servant men" or "servant lads" were described as being able to converse in several languages, usually English, Gaelic, French or Latin, and sometimes Greek! Notwithstanding the fact that Gaelic was then more widely spoken in Ireland than English, and that the youth of the country were educated mainly in their native tongue, an Irish boy or girl able "to speak good English" or write a good hand" was not a rarity, and the fact that such a large number of them came to the colonies indicates what an intelligent class Ireland sent to America in the formative period of the country's history. And let it be recorded also, that the vast majority of these, as the names in the newspaper advertisements clearly indicate, were of the ancient Celtic stock, and not the so-called "Scotch-Irish" or "AngloIrish." An examination of the newspapers will at once verify the truth of this assertion.
Among those advertised for in the Philadelphia newspapers I find several named McCarthy. For example, Thomas Martin of Uwchlan, Chester County, Pa., advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette of January 29, 1751, for "a runaway Irish servant man named James McCarthy; a weaver by trade; speaks good English; a short, well-set fellow, about 21 years of age." Then follows a minuet description of James McCarthy's personal appearance and an offer of a reward of forty shillings for his return. The whereabouts of "Florence McCarty, a runaway servant-man, belonging to John
[page 159]Flannigan of Cecil County, Maryland," was sought through an advertisement in the Pennsylvania Gazette of September 14, 1752, and "Hugh McCarty, an Irish servant lad about 19 years of age," who was "apprenticed to Thomas Thorn of Chesterfield Township, WestNew-Jersey," from whom he had "run away," was advertised for in the Pennsylvania Chronicle of March 13-20, 1769.
In the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 21 there is a long list of "Servants and Apprentices Bound and Assigned before James Hamilton, Mayor of Philadelphia, 1745," and among these appear the names of:
"Bryan McCarty from Ireland"
"Catherine Carthy from Ireland"
"John McCarthrey from Ireland"
The list referred to is one of the most striking illustrations of the racial character of the immigrants entering the country through the port of Philadelphia at this or any other period of our history. It contains the names of 866 persons in all, divided according to countries of nativity as follows:
|From various parts of America||31|
|From East Indies||3|
|Persons whose native countries are not stated:|
|Bearing non-Irish names||149|
|Bearing Irish names||63|
|Proportion of Irish||73%|
[page 160]The full names of all of these people are given and if the advocates of the "Scotch-Irish" theory were to examine the list, it would prove something of a surprise to note the racial origin of the "immigrants from Ireland," as indicated by their names!
A number of McCarthys enlisted in a Pennsylvania regiment organized for service in the Colonial wars. In 1746 Governor Thomas of Pennsylvania ordered that 400 men be raised for an expedition to Canada, and of 327 men recruited in the three "Lower Counties" (now the State of Delaware) in July and August of that year, 55 percent were recorded as "natives of Ireland." The following summary showing the countries of nativity of these men illustrates the eagerness of the Irish settlers to fight for their adopted country, and when we consider the fact, which the record shows, that all were in the prime of life and that they were occupied mainly in manual toil, it may be assumed that they were excellent fighting men and, doubtless, rendered good service to the State.
|Born in Ireland||180|
|Born in America||47|
|Born in England||39|
|Born in Germany||27|
|Born in Scotland||11|
|Born in West Indies||2|
|Born in Wales, Denmark and Sweden, 1 each||3|
|Countries of birth--Not stated||18|
[page 161]"John McCarty, private, age 24, born in Ireland, enlisted June 30, 1746"
Captain Trent's company is mentioned by Thackeray in his famous story, The Virginians. Its strength was 115 men, of whom fifty-two are recorded as "born in Ireland," in addition to which there are five other distinctive Celtic names, making an Irish proportion of fifty percent. In Captain John Shannon's company, organized at the same time as Captain Trent's company, there were 100 men of whom fifty-one were "born in Ireland," one of whom was "Thomas Carty, age 30, tailor, enlisted July 5, 1746," and among the enlisted men in Captain John Deimer's company was "Jeremiah McCartey, age 25, born in Ireland, enlisted July 17, 1746." In Captain John Haslet's company in the Provincial service of Pennsylvania, organized May 21, 1758, Jeremiah McCarty is listed, and of the fifty-two men comprising the company thirty-two are down as "born in Ireland," or an Irish proportion of sixty-one percent.
A large number of Irishmen were in command of American merchant vessels during the Colonial and Revolutionary periods, and in American annals we read numerous references to Irishmen who were trained to the sea, and the journals and other records of the time bear ample testimony to the fact that Irish captains and sailors served on American privateers sailing out of every port on the Atlantic coast. These "rovers of the sea" rivaled in every respect the native American seamen. They were ready for every individual hazard, whether engaged in peaceful commerce or in raiding
[page 162]enemy shipping in times of war, and one is struck with surprise at the apparently endless roll of British ships which, during the Revolutionary war, were brought into American ports with rich cargoes of food, clothing, arms and ammunition captured by those clever and adventursome American privateersmen. Much of the naval history of the Revolution centers round the privateersmen and it seems a great pity that no one of our well-known writers of "sea-stories" has taken up this subject seriously, for it deserves a distinct place in American history. The Irish mariners of the wars of Independence have left a record in America that is well worthy of preservation and it will stand as an imperishable monument to the gallant part they played in the defense of their adopted country. 23
Among those Irish sea captains we find a number of McCarthys, sailing principally out of Boston, New London, New York and Philadelphia. In December 1740, the arrival at Philadelphia of "Captain Richard McCarthy in the Diana, with a number of people from Dublin," was announced in the Philadelphia newspapers. In Benjamin Franklin's Pennsylvania Gazette of October 19, 1749, among vessels "entered inwards" at the Philadelphia Custom House, there is an entry showing that "the Brig't Dove, Captain Daniel McCarty," had arrived from London during the previous week, and in the same issue of the paper there are five advertisements announcing that certain goods, "just imported by Captain McCartie from London in the Dove," were for sale at the stores of William and David McIlvaine, James Trotter, Andrew Elliot, Henry Harrison and Robert Moore, all of Philadelphia. Some of
[page 163]these advertisements were repeated in various issues of the Gazette, and in the Gazette of November 2nd, Charles and Alexander Stedman, Samuel Burge, John Wallace and Alexander Hamilton, all Philadelphia merchants, also advertised for sale numerous articles "just imported in the Dove by Captain Daniel Macartie," and some of these announcements were continued in the paper all through the months of November and December, 1749.
From these advertisements we obtain an idea of the extent and importance of the cargo of the Dove, since the total number of lines in all nine advertisements was 270, and Robert Moore's announcement alone contained sixty-two lines of small type to describe the goods imported by Captain McCarthy, "for sale at his store in Front Street, Philadelphia." Having examined the newspapers published in the cities on the Atlantic seaboard during the colonial period, I am in a position to say that the cargo of the Dove on this voyage was one of the most important imported to this country, and these advertisements indicate that the vessel commanded by Captain McCarthy must have been one of the largest then engaged in transatlantic trade. Under the head of "Vessels cleared for departure" from Philadelphia, the Gazette of November 30, 1749, announced "the Brig't Dove, Captain Daniel McCarthy, for Cork, Ireland."
The next appearance of his name in the public prints was when the Dove arrived in the Delaware River on July 30, 1750, on her return voyage from Cork, and the Pennsylvania Gazette of August 2nd printed the following interesting advertisement: "Just arrived from Ireland in the Brigantine Dove, Captain Daniel McCarthy, a parcel of likely servants in good health, among whom are husbandmen and tradesmen of sundry sorts, likewise some women, who are to be disposed of by James Pem-
[page 164]berton." This announcement also appeared in the Gazette of August 9th and 16th, 1750, and this, coupled with the fact that the vessel lay at Philadelphia for over two months, indicates that the human freight imported from Cork must have been very large, since it was usual to retain the passengers on board the immigrant ships until the "time" of each person was disposed of. In the Gazette of October 11, 1750, among vessels "cleared for departure" from Philadelphia, the "Brig't Dove, Daniel McCarthy, for Jamaica," is listed. As I have found no other references to Captain McCarthy, I am unable to trace further the career of this interesting Irish mariner of colonial times, but it may be that the "Daniel McCarthy of Dublin," whose death was announced in the Pennsylvania Gazette of May 28, 1752, was the same man. However, there was a "Daniel McCarty, Master of the Brig Dolphin, thirty tons," registered at the Philadelphia Custom House under date of June 3, 1768, and a Captain Daniel McCarthy is mention in the Pennsylvania Gazette in the years 1771 and 1773 as commander of a merchant vessel plying out of Philadelphia.
Among the commanders of vessels registered at the Philadelphia Custom House, and plying out of that port, as recorded under "Ships Registers" in the Pennsylvania Archives, 24 were: Justin McCarthy, Master of the sloop Hibernia, 30 tons, registered October 25, 1766; Charles McCarthy, Master of the brig Helena and Mary, 100 tons, registered June 3, 1774, and John McCarty, Captain of the brigantine Comet, 14 guns, in the service of the Pennsylvania Navy in 1776. A number of sailors and marines also served on vessels of the Pennsylvania Navy in the Revolution. Patrick McCarty enlisted as a
[page 165]private of marines on the armed boat Race Horse on May 1, 1776; Timothy McCarty joined the crew of the same boat on June 12, 1777, and on July 7, 1777, Daniel McCarty enlisted as a marine on the Race Horse. Jeremiah McCarty enlisted as a seaman on the ship Montgomery, April 2, 1776, and on August 1st following he was "promoted to boatswain," and Patrick McCarthy enlisted March 19, 1776, as a marine on the same vessel. Another Patrick McCarthy was discharged on March 8, 1777, from the "Putnam Floating Battery." John McCarty joined the armed boat Thunder on May 6, 1777, and was recorded "drowned May 13, 1777." Thomas McCarty served as a private on the Warren: enlisted May 1, 1776; discharged August 21, 1776. Jeremiah McCarty was then boatswain of the vessel and James McCarty was its boatswain after December 1st, 1776. John McCarty enlisted as a private on the General Washington on October 3, 1775, and on February 14, 1776, Daniel McCarthy was enlisted as a marine on the armed boat Camden. John McCarthy of Philadelphia was appointed Mate of the ship Columbia on June 22, 1781. A Daniel McCarthy is also recorded as "private in Captain Robert Mullan's Company of Marines," with date of enlistment August 10, 1776. This was largely an Irish company, judging from the names of the men, 25 and were raised and commanded by Robert Mullan, proprietor of a tavern in Water Street, Philadelphia. John Carty, marine, enlisted on the Bull Dog of the Pennsylvania Navy on November 17, 1776.
No better evidence can be found in support of the assertion that large numbers of Irish families settled in Pennsylvania in colonial days than the names of these people recorded as patentees of lands in that Province
[page 166]and State. These names are enumerated in the official publications known as the Pennsylvania Archives, and the vast number of old Irish names appearing in these Archives, beginning with the early years of the eighteenth century, furnish a clear indication that the immigrants from Ireland were comprised of all classes of the population and that they came, not only from the Province of Ulster, but from all parts of the Kingdom. Among these a number of McCarthys are listed as "Warrantees of Land" and "Taxables," and in the muster rolls of the soldiers who fought in the Colonial and Revolutionary wars, and the land records show that people of the name were owners of property in fourteen different Counties of the State prior to the year 1800.
Many of these Irish immigrants settled in Chester County, and indeed so numerous are the names of these people and their descendants in the land and church records of this part of the State that it would seem as if nearly every well-known Irish family had one or more representatives in this region prior to the Revolution. Chester County is noted for the large number of men recruited there for the Continental army and militia, and among these appear a number of McCarthys. The earliest mention of a McCarthy in the land records of Chester County is that of Andrew, who received a patent for one hundred acres of land on Marcy 9, 1748, and again on December 12, 1754, and in 1750 John and James McCarty received grants of fifty acres each in the same vicinity. Patrick McCarty was also a land owner in Chester County, since his name appears in the tax lists of the year 1753. and Cornelius McCarty's name is entered in the land records as of September 30, 1757, as the patentee of one hundred acres in Chester County.
[page 167]Daniel McCarty appears four times in the year 1753 as the patentee of lands in Northampton County.
Among the "Taxables" enumerated in the "Provincial Papers, containing the Provincial and State Tax Lists," 26 and the years in which they are first recorded appear an unusual number of persons of this name, of whom the following is an exact list:
|Daniel McCarty 27||Northampton||1753|
|Patrick McCarty (2nd)||Chester||1765|
|John McCarthey||Armagh Twp., Cumberland||1778|
|John McCarthy||Derry Twp., Cumberland||1778|
[page 170]Robert McCarthy. Among his neighbors in Robinson Township are mentioned people named McCormick, McBride, McGehan, McDowell, McGugan, McCarroll, McConaughey and McCloskey. Adjacent to McCarthy's land was Cherry Fort, erected in 1774. It was built to withstand a formidable attack, and here in times of danger the McCarthy and neighboring families fled for protection against the Indians. 29 One of John McCarthy's grandsons, Dr. Henry D. McCarty, was a noted western educator. He was born in Washington County in 1822 and taught for some years at the West Alexander, Pa., academy under Dr. John McCloskey, after which he took charge of an academy at Morristown, Ohio. At his own expense, he went on a tour of the country, visiting schools, lecturing at institutions and laboring in the cause of education generally. About the middle of the last century he went to Kansas and opened a school at Leavenworth, then a frontier settlement, surmounting obstacles and difficulties which would have overcome many less resolute men, but, on the outbreak of the Civil War he volunteered and rose to the command of his company. After the war he took a prominent part in the organization of the public school system of Kansas and was the founder and editor of an Educational Journal which had wide circulation and influence.
In "A Return of the number of houses, names of owners, and number of men, women and children at Fort Pitt, 30 April 14, 1761," extracted from a manuscript entitled "The Correspondence of Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet, 1757-1765," 31 appears the name of Patrick McCarty. Patrick had served as a soldier
[page 171]in the Colonial War and was in an expedition commanded by Bouquet. Thomas McCarthy was "one of the Commissioners of the United States to treat with the Indians at Fort Pitt in 1776 for a Treaty." 32 He was called by the Indians Moskomoge, meaning "the Fish Hawk." This Thomas McCarthy also had the distinction of serving on Washington's famous Body-Guard. His military record shows that on January 14, 1776, he enlisted for three years from Newtown, Pa., in Captain George Lewis' troop of Colonel George Baylor's Third Regiment of Continental Dragoons and was "assigned May 1, 1777, to the Cavalry of the Commander-in-Chief's Guard." 33
In examining the records from which the foregoing items are extracted, it is with considerable interest that one notes the constant recurrence, not only of the McCarthy name, but of numerous other old Irish names. These official entries, in themselves, show that the McCarthys played a certain part among the pioneers of the "Keystone State" in the tilling of the soil and the development of its business, yet it is strange that but few of these people receive any credit from the historians or are mentioned at all among the pioneer settlers. It is not only in the tax lists that these names appear, but in connection with land transactions of all kinds and the everyday business of life, and while these prosaic records furnish no information to indicate what the history of
[page 172]these people may have been, one has only to consult the Pennsylvania Archives to obtain an idea of the great number of Irish families who settled in that Province in the eighteenth century, which explains why such a large proportion of the soldiers of the Pennsylvania Line were of old Irish stock.
[page 173]CHAPTER VII
THE MCCARTHYS IN NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY
Large number of men of the name appears in the muster rolls of Colonial troops and the Land Papers of New York-The New York marriage and probate records-The McCarty families of Albany-The exploit of Timothy Murphy at the battle of Saratoga-The old merchants of New York-Dr. D. B. McCartee, a distinguished scholar-McCarthys in the New Jersey probate records-Revolutionary soldiers.The first of the name mentioned in New York records was Dennis McCarthy. In the "Court Minutes of New Amsterdam" the following entry appears: "Att a Court of the Mayor and Aldermen held at New Yorke by his Mayestles Authority the 24th day of October, 1671," "Dennis Mccarty plt v/s Thomas Edwards, Mr of the Ketch Society, Deft, The Plt declares that the Deft is Indebted unto him for Cutting & Chipping of Logwood the summe of Five pounds sterling and craves Judgemt for the same agst the Deft and the Court ordered the defendant to pay the amount with costs. Again, at "A Mayor's Court held in New Yorks the 14th. of November, 1671," the case of "Samuel Hall Pit V/S Denys Mccarty Deft" came up, but the record says: "the Pit defaut" and "the Court ordered that a Nonsuit should be entred agst the Plt to pay Cost." 1 The next appearance of the name in New York records was that of "Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston" under date of October 7, 1677. It is evident that a family of the name was in the City of New York as early as 1710,
[page 174]as may be seen from a list of marriages solemnized at the Dutch Reformed Church, which includes the marriage of "Dennis Makharty and Elizabeth Reedt" on December 14, 1710. 1 "Caerty" was another peculiar twist given to the name by the Dutch Dominee who baptized "Wilhelmus, daughter of William Murfie and his wife, Annatje Van Ekle," at the Dutch Reformed Church of New York on December 10, 1718. "Geesji Caerty, wife of Owen Carthey or McCarthey," was one of the sponsors at this Irish-Dutch christening. One Hugh McCarty was an early resident of Long Island and evidently came over as a "redemptioner," according to a clause in the will of Joseph Sackett of Newtown, Queens County, dated September 20, 1719, which reads: "I leave to my son John the time Hugh MeCarty has tao live with me by his indenture." 2
A family of the name is on record in Albany County as early as 1736. On March 7th of that year "Pieter or Patric Maccarty of Half Moon" marries Greefje Rhee, and there is an entry of his second marriage in 1742 to Anna... and among the baptisms at the Dutch Church at Albany were "Philip, son of Pieter or Patrik Mccarty" on January 8, 1736, and "Catherine, daugter of Patrick and Anna Mccarty" on February 6, 1743." 3 John Maccarty seems also to have been at Albany or vicinity, but the only mention of his name I can find is the record of the baptism of "Elizabeth, child of John Macarty and Anna Dorson" on February 14, 1748. 4 The marriages of Dennis McCarty and Nancy Homes
[page 175]and of Timothy McCarty and Rebecca Patin, on February 21, 1780, and February 15, 1787, respectively, are also recorded at Albany. 5
In the New York newspapers of the Colonial period may be seen occasional advertisements of "Lists of Letters remaining in the Post office at New York before the Posts came in." In all cases the residences of the addressees were not mentioned, presumably because they were unknown, and among the advertisements under this head which were printed in issues of the New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury of the dates named were letters addressed to
|Ann McCarty||August 10, 1754|
|Mary McCarty||July 7, 1755|
|Neil McCarty||July 19, 1773|
|Margaret McCarty||March 6, 1775|
|Thomas McCarty||March 6, 1775|
Owen McCarty and John Karty in company of volunteers mustered in at the City of Albany June 4, 1755,
[page 176]and serving at Lake George in October, 1755, under Captain Edward Matthews.
Matthew McCarty appears in roll of Captain Hasbrook's company of troops under the command of Colonel DeLancey, raised in 1758.
Thomas McCarty, age 50, born in Ireland, labourer; and Lawrence McCarty, age 33, born in Ireland, miner, in company of men raised in the City and County of New York by Captain George Brewerton. Date of enlistment April 16, 1759. Another Lawrence, surname recorded as "McCarth," age 22, born in Ireland, miner, enlisted on April 30, 1759, in Capt. A. Saylor's company of Colonel Michael Thodey's regiment.
Thomas Carty, age 20, born in Ireland, mariner, enlisted in Captain George Brewerton's New York Company on April 26, 1759.
Alexander McCarthy, born in Scotland, enlisted in company of men mustered for the City of New York by Captain Barnaby Byrne, March 24, 1760.
Hugh McCarty, age 20, born in Ireland, labourer, in roll of men raised in Queen's County in April, 1760; served under Lieutenant Edward Burke in company commanded by Captain Daniel Wright.
Jeremiah McCarthey served in Captain Richard Rea's company raised in Albany County in 1761.
Darby McCarty, age 28, born in Ireland, labourer, in roll of Captain Livingston's company raised in Albany County in May, 1760.
Owen McCarty, age 26, born in Ireland, mariner, served under Lieutenant Constantine O'Brien of Captain Abraham Deforeest's company, reboRed in the City of New York. Date of enlistment May 6, 1760.
Charles McCarty, enlisted in May, 1760, in Captain Viele's company raised in Dutchess County.
[page 177]Patrick Carty, age 32, born in Ireland, labourer, in roll of men raised in Queen's County by Captain George Dunbar. Date of enlistment April 1, 1760.
William McCarthy, age 30, born in Ireland, sailor, in roll of "man raised in the Province of New York for the expedition against Canada under command of Captain Francis Thodey." Date of enlistment June 11, 1760.
Thomas McCarty, age 42, born in Ireland, labourer, in roll of men raised in Albany County by Captain Stephen Schuyler. Enlisted May 3, 1760.
Hugh McCartee age 26, born in Ireland, stone cutter, mustered into Captain William Gilchrist's company raised in Westchester County, May 13, 1760.
John McCarty, age 36, born in Ireland, labourer, enlisted April 29, 1760, in Captain James Clinton's company raised in Ulster County. This man's name is also recorded as "John Mchearty."
Thomas McCarty, age 44, born in Ireland, butcher, in roll of men raised in Albany County by Captain Christopher Yates. Enlisted May 19, 1761.
Thomas McCarty, age 21, born in Ireland, cooper, in roll of men raised in Queens and Westchester Counties by Captain George Dunbar. Date of enlistment, June 17, 1761.
William Carty, age 26, born in New England, labourer, in roll of men raised in Albany County by Captain John Van Veghten, of the Second New York Regiment. Enlisted May 28, 1761.
David McCarthy, drummer in Captain Peter Harris' Dutchess County company. Enlistsed May 28, 1761.
Alexander McCarty, in Captain Lents' company of Albany County troops, enlisted July 2, 1761.
Charles McCartery, age 27, born in Ireland, mariner,
[page 178]served in Captain Platt's Company of Suffolk County, mustered in 1761.
Alexander McCarthy, served in Captain James Clinton's company of Ulster County, mustered in June 20, 1762.
Jeremiah McCarty, age 30, born in Ireland, sawyer, in roll of men mustered in at Albany May 17, 1762, for Captain Cornelius Van Denbigh.
John McCarthy enlisted December 25, 1763, in a company under Lieutenant Joseph Fitzpatrick, mustered in at New York on January 6, 1764.
Thomas McCarty, served as Lieutenant under Captain Barnaby Byrne, in a company of Provincials mustered in at New York, May 9, 1764.
In the "Land Papers" at the office of the Secretary of State at Albany, among soldiers entitled to grants of land for military services in the Colonial wars, a large number of Irish names appear. Under date of January 19, 1765, there is a "Certificate of Captain James Grant that John McCarthy served as a corporal in the 40th Regiment," for which he was entitled to a grant of land. A "Return of Survey" for Charles McCarty and others, "late privates in the 8Oth Regiment, of a tract of 800 acres on the East side of Lake Champlain in Albany County" (now Shelburne, Vermont), appears under date of July 20, 1765, and on March 3, 1766, John McCarty and John Sullivan, describing themselves as "late sergeants in the 40th Regiment," petitioned for "a grant of 750 acres of land on the east side of Lake Champlain in Albany County." On August 19, 1766, Thomas McCarty and five others petitioned "for 800 acres of land on the west size of Hudson's River in Ulster County," and the "Petition of John McCarty for 200 acres on the east size of Hudson's
[page 179]River in Albany County," accompanied by a certificate that "he served as a drummer in the 8Oth Regiment," is dated November 11, 1768. On September 24, 1771, there was entered a "Return of Survey" for John McCarty "for 200 acres of land on west side of the Hudson River in Albany County near the Cater's Kill."
John McCarthy and Finley McCarty of New York City appear in the "Poll List on Election for Assembly, February, 1761." I find references to three men named McCarthy having been "murdered" at different places in the Province of New York. In the New York Gazette and Weekly Post-Boy of September 10, 1750, there is an account of a "Coroner's Inquest on the Body of one Thomas McCarthy in this City, who died the Tuesday before of some Wounds he received the 1st of August last in a Scuffle with a Boatman, when it was brought in Wilful Murder." The Providence (R.I.) Gazette of February 4, 1764, referred to the death of "Thomas McCarthy, who was Killed by a highwayman at Cow Neck, Long Island," and in the "calendar of Historical Manuscripts" in the office of the Secretary of State, under date of March 7, 1764, there is a copy of a proclamation issued "for the arrest of Joseph Cornwall and Richardson Cornwall of New York, Shopkeepers, charged with the murder of Timothy McCarthy, of New York, Merchant, who were concealed at the house of Henry Sands, in Nassau Island."
In the last half of the eighteenth century there were a number of families named McCarthy in Orange County, chiefly at Minisink in the Town of Deer Park. Minisink was the Indian name for a large district now embraced partly in Sussex County, N. J., and partly in Orange County, N. Y., and on Sussex County records of the year 1758 James McCarty is mentioned as one of the
[page 180]pioneer settlers. 7 The earliest reference to a person of the name was the marriage of James McCarty and Lisabeth Mey in the Reformed Church at Deer Park on June 15, 1746, and the next appearance of the name was when Sarah McCarty became the wife of Joseph Bacon at the same Church on July 8, 1753. From that time forward, down to the end of the century, the name occurs frequently in the marriage and baptismal records, as will be noted from the extracts appended hereto, which have been taken from the collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. One of the ancient churches of the town of Deer Park is at a place called Walpeck and its records show that a large number of McCartys were married and baptized there during the early years of the last century.
The records of the Deer Park Churches afford an insight to the way surnames became changed in America, and they serve as an explanation of the reason why so many old American families of the present day of Irish descent now bear apparently non-Irish names. Among several curious entries which appear in the baptismal register of the Reformed Church at Deer Park are: " James, three years old, son of Hugh Maccate and Mary McCann," and "Stephen, six years old; Huwe, four years old; and Maragriet, one year old; children of Stephen Maccate and Nancy Gibbons," all baptized on March 26, 1764. 8 One would hardly suspect Hugh and Stephen "Maccate" to have been MacCarthys, were it not for the fast that their marriages to Mary McCann and Nancy Gibbons are so recorded. In the same records the name is also rendered "Charty," "McCharty" and "McKarter," as for instance : James Mc-
[page 181]Carty was a witness at the baptism of "Jacobus, son of Christopher Decker and his wife, Mariea McKarter," July 9, 1777, and "William M. Charty" and "Elizabeth M. Charty" were sponsors for "Andries, son of Christopher Decker and his wife, Maria McCharty" on April 29, 1772. In other entries the names of the "Chartys" are spelled "McCarty" and also that of "Mariea McKarter" or "Maria McCharty." There is no mention whatever of these people in Orange County histories, notwithstanding that there have been several families of the name there since the middle of the eighteenth century.
The Registry of Deeds for New York County contains the following entries: deed from Charles McCarthy to James Logan and others, dated October 30, 1765, 9 deed from Thomas and Mary McCarthy to Robert Spier, dated May 1, 1798, 10 and deed from Johns Schanck to Thomas McCarty, dated May 2, 1797. 11 Among persons of this name who appear in New York probate records are the following:
John McCarthey, witness to will of Thomas Hepworth of New York City, April 22, 1758.
George McCarty, witness to will of Jacob Stone of Beckman, Dutchess County, February 15, 1773.
Cornelius McCarthy, witness to will of Joshua Bishop of Phillipsburgh , Westchester County, August 23, 1775, and Cornelius McCarty, possibly the same, witness to will of Benjamin Farming|ton of Mile Square, Westchester County, April 4, 1779.
Thomas McCarthy, witness to will of Michael O'Dell of Westchester County, July 22, 1782.
John McCarty, "Clerk in hospital," died intestate
[page 182]and Letters of Administration granted to George Stanton on September 15, 1782.
Charlotte McCarthy, wife of, David McCarthy, one of the beneficiaries under the will of John Barclay, Mayor of the City of Albany, dated June 20, 1783. Charles McCarthy 12 and Jonathan Sullivan, witnesses to will of Gibbon Bourke, merchant of New York, dated March 2, 1788. Among the legatees mentioned were John and Marie Sullivan, Thomas, John, Margaret and Michael Bourke, and "the Catholic Church of St. Peter's."
James "McCardy" appointed one of the executors of the will of John Buckley of Montgomery, Ulster County, dated September 4, 1786.
Timothy McCarty, witness to will of John Peters of New York City, May 18, 1791.
Duncan McCarty, witness to will of James Lakerman of New York, January 16, 1793.
Charles McCarty, witness to will of James Farrell of New York, June 14, 1794.
Thomas McCarty, cooper of New York, died intestate and Letters of Administration granted to his wife, Mary, December 29, 1798.
John McCarty was one of the signatories to the "Association Pledge" of 1775, by which the people of Orange County pledged their allegiance to the patriot cause, 13 and it is noted that among those who signed the Pledge from the little town of Cornwall, where John McCarty resided, were a goodly Irish representation; consisting of the following:
|Thomas Sullivan,||Matthew Sweeny,||Maurice Hearen,|
|John Kelly,||Thomas Lynch,||Lewis Donovan,|
|Michael Kelley,||Francis Bourke,||John McKelvey,|
|Hugh McDonnel,||William McLaughlin,||John McClughin,|
|Patrick O'Day,||Patrick McDonald,||Patrick Ford.|
|Patrich Cashaday,||Patrick McLaughlin,|
David McCarty was a man of some prominence at Albany before the Revolution. The "Journal of the New York Legislative Council" 16 shows that on March 9, 1775, he was recommended to the Governor for an appointment as Justice of Albany County. He was a member of the Committee of Safety for Albany County during the Revolution and appears also to have served in the field, and from 1793 until the time of his death he was General of State troops. According to American Ancestry, 17 he came from Ireland lo Albany prior to 1771, and in that year he married Charlotta Coeymans, granddaughter of Pieter Coeymans, the founder of a wealthy Dutch family, and through this marriage David
[page 184]McCarty came into possession of portion of the lands comprised in the old Coeymans patent. On April 14, 1776, Mccarty signed himself as "of the Manor of Rensselaer" in a "Recommendation for Sheriff and Clerk of Albany." 18 In 1792 he is mentioned as a member of the Legislature and later as a Judge of Albany County. 19 He died in 1812. His son, David, born in Albany in 1782, was a State Senator in 1826 and Judge of Albany County. Another David McCarty of Coeymans, who was born in 1808, was Colonel of the 110th Regiment of New York State Militia. Still another family of the name lived in Rensselaer County. In American Ancestry there is a reference to George McCarthy, born at Greenbush in 1775, who was a son of Timothy McCarthy (and Rebecca Patten) who was "born in County Cork, Ireland, and came to America." 20 Among the early settlers at Lansingburgh, Rensselaer County, about 1771 Hugh McCarty is mentioned. 21
There was a John McCarty at Albany, probably of the same family as David, who is mentioned as furnishing supplies for the use of the American troops during the Revolution. In the "Journal of the Committee of Safety of the New York Provincial Congress" there is an entry under date of March 3, 1777, showing that "James Magee, one of the persons appointed by the Committee by their resolution on the ninth of October last, to purchase clothing of different kinds in the County of Albany for the use of the troops raised in this State," was furnished with goods, valued at 102 pounds.
[page 185]19s. 6d., for the use of the Third Battalion of New York Continental troops, by John McCarty of Albany. The earliest deed for lands in Oswego County, recorded at the County Clerk's office, was made by William Cockburn and Isaac Davis, as attorneys for Dennis McCarthy and Matthew Whalen, covering "lots in the Military Township of Hannibal." The deed is dated August 18, 1790, and described McCarthy and Whalen as "soldiers of the Revolution" and the lots as having been granted to them for their services as such. 22
At Johnstown, N. Y., there were a number of Irish and Highland Scotch settlers prior to 1773, and among them were families named McCarthy, Moriarty, Byrne, Doran, Sadlier, Egan, Lafferty and Daly, some of whom are referred to by a local historian as "the aristocratic foreign element." 23 These people were induced to emigrate from Ireland by Sir William Johnson, "Governor of the Indians from the Hudson to the Mississippi River," who was himself a native of County Meath, Ireland, and was a descendant of the Irish family of MacShane. An Irishman named Wall, also from Meath, was the schoolmaster of the settlement. According to the historian of Fulton County, "Saint Patrick's Parish was formed at Johnstown in 1773, whose clergyman was Rev. John McKenna, an Irish Catholic priest, who was educated at Louvain University." He is described as "the first resident Roman Catholic priest in this State after the Jesuit missionaries among the Mohawks nearly it century before." 24 A number of Irish people were members of Saint Patrick's Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons," founded at Johnstown in 1766, of which Sir William Johnson was the first "Master" and
[page 186]Michael Byrne, a native of Wicklow, Ireland, was "Junior Warden." John McCarthy was Master of the Lodge in 1797. At Rhinebeck, Dutchess County, one Daniel McCarthy is mentioned as one of the "active and influential citizens" of the town. A local historian says that "when Colonel Livingston returned home from the Revolutionary war, he brought with him two old soldiers of the Revolution, named Henry Doyle and Daniel McCarthy. McCarthy became a miller, and no family did more in the upbuilding of the town and village than the McCarthys." 24
At Saratoga, a place famous not only for its springs but its the scene of Burgoyne's surrender, we find an Irishman named McCarthy in possession of the ground over which the fiercest struggle was fought during the battle which proved to be the turning point of the Revolutionary War. It will be of interest to recall in this connection an incident which happened at the battle of Saratoga, related by tossing in his Field Book of the Revolution. The main force of the enemy under Burgoyne was under the command of General Fraser, "the brains of the British Army." "The gallant Fraser was the directing soul of the British troops in action, and his skill and courage were everywhere conspicuous. When the lines gave way, he brought order out of confusion; when regiments began to waver, he infused courage into them by voice and example. He was mounted on a splendid iron-gray gelding ; and dressed in the full uniform of a field officer, he was a conspicuous object for the Americans. It was evident that the fate of the battle rested upon him and this the keen eye and sure judgment of Morgan perceived. In an instant his purpose was conceived, and, calling a file of his best men around him,
[page 187]he said, as he pointed toward the British right, That gallant officer is General Fraser. I admire and honor him, but it is necessary he should die; victory for the enemy depends upon him. Take your stations in that clump of bushes and do your duty.' Within five minutes Fraser fell, mortally wounded. As soon as Fraser fell, a panic spread along the British line. The whole line gave way and fled precipitately, within the entrenchments of the Camp." So ended the battle of Saratoga, In a Victory for the Americans. The name of the rifleman who killed General Fraser was Timothy Murphy. Afterwards he accompanied General Sullivan in his expedition against the Indians in Central and Western New York, and many stories are told of Murphy's prowess as a rifleman in the fighting in that territory against the savage allies of the British.
The owner of the house in which General Fraser died was John McCarthy, who also leased the land, which was at a place known as Wilbur's Basin near the Hudson River. On this farm were several hills or large knolls and on the seizure of the place by the enemy prior to the battle, they erected entrenchments on these hills facing the river in preparation for the coming struggle. What be came of John McCarthy, history does not record, but a local historian informs us that "the first owner of the farm house was John McCarty, who ran away from home in Limerick, 25 Ireland, to avoid marrying a girl whom his parents had selected for him. In 1765 he leased a farm at Wilbur's Basin from Philip Schuyler, on which are the three hills fortified by Burgoyne and on one of which General Fraser was buried.
[page 188]The lease called for one-tenth of the produce as rental and the original parchment is now in the possession of Edwin D. Wilbur of Wilbur's Basin, a descendant of John McCarty." 26
In the City of New York people of the name are mentioned at various times. John McCarty was one of the early settlers of Essex County in the year 1764. 27 He was one of a number of pioneers brought there by William Gilliland from the City of New York in that year. 28 Thomas McCarty was admitted a "Freeman" of New York by the City Council on August 4, 1769, and John McCarty was made a "Freeman" of the City on July 23, 1784. 29 "Cornelius McCarty, peruke-maker of New York," is so mentioned in Holt's New York Journal or General Advertiser for July 1, 1773, and in the New York gazette and Weekly Mercury of August 16, 1773, Samuel Auchmuty advertised for sale the time of "an Irish servant man named James Carthy, about 16 years of age." Among a number of poor people who were compelled to leave New York in August, 1776, when the British army took possession of the City, and who went to Bedford, Westchester County, and applied to the Committee of Safety for relief, were three women named Mary McCarthy, Elizabeth Maguire and Sarah O'Farrell. 30
[page 189]In New York annals late in the eighteenth century are found references to three merchants of the name, who, according to all indications, ranked among the prominent business men of the time. Dennis McCarthy was in the wholesale grocery business and also conducted a number of retail stores, and Barrett says in his Old Merchants of New York 31 that he was the father-in-law of Dominick Lynch, one of the wealthiest merchants in New York in his day. 32 Dennis McCarthy was associated with Thomas Addis Emmet, Dr. William J. MacNeven and other refugees from Ireland after the Rebellion of 1798, and he was also a member of the Hibernian Provident Society, organized in New York in the year 1801 for the purpose of aiding distressed Irish immigrants, and which continued to exercise its benevolence for many years. He was an early member of the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick and a New York newspaper described him as "president of an association, a very numerous and highly respectable company who celebrated the anniversary of Saint Patrick at the Shamrock Hall" on, March 17, 1817. 33 Barrett says that Dennis McCarthy was a very successful man and that for several years after his death his wealth was the subject of litigation among his relatives in the New York courts.
Peter McCarthy was one of the firm of "Peter McCarty and Company," merchants and vendee masters at 121 Water Street, which firm continued in business up to the middle of the last century. The time of his arrival here is unknown, but, that it was at an early date is shown by the record of his marriage in New York to
[page 190]Ann Kean on March 16, 1762. 34 Barrett speaks of him as "the father of a family of lovely daughters, one of whom, Augusta, married Jacob Little, one of the financial pillars of New York." 35 Another Peter, whose name is spelled frequently in the public records "McCartee," and whose descendants continued to use that form of the name, is also mentioned by Barrett as "a famed Swamp man in his day," 36 that is, he was a leather merchant in the district then and still known as "The Swamp." He also was very successful and as late as 1815 he was an Alderman of the City of New York. Robert McCartee, who was born in New York in 1791, doubtless was his son. Originally, he was a lawyer but became a clergyman and in 1822 he is mentioned as "pastor of the Irish Presbyterian Church," whose congregation at that time was comprised mostly of Presbyterian immigrants from Ireland, and according to an account of his career 37 he seems to have been a very prominent clergyman in his day. His son, Dr. D. B. McCartee, was a noted Oriental scholar. He was a practicing physician in New York, but in 1843 he went to China and was United States Consul at Ningpo and was also Judge of the "mixed court" at Shanghai. He had a remarkable career in China and Japan and at one time was a professor in the Imperial University at Tokyo, and was Secretary of the Chinese Legation there. His writings on Asiatic history, linguistics, natural science, medicine and politics in the publications of the American Geographical Society, the American Oriental Society and other associations have been numerous and valuable.
[page 191]His religious writings in Chinese are still widely circulated and read. 38
Charles McCarthy was also one of New York's merchants in the early years of the last century, but, that he was a resident of the City before that time is indicated by his marriage to Deborah Hutchings on April 5, 1794, 39 and in 1805 he is mentioned as a member of the Society of the Friendly Sons of Saint Patrick. The names of several other McCarthys appear in the early Directories of the City of New York, and in the Directory of the year 1801 William McCarty is listed as "United States Consul to the Isle of France."
One of the leading American lawyers of his day in the early part of the last century was Samuel Nelson, who was born in Washington County, N. Y. He was the son of John Rogers Nielson 40 and Jane McCartee, his wife, both natives of Ireland who, in 1760, came with a colony of Irish immigrants from County Monaghan and settled in the town of Salem, Washington County. In 1823, Samuel Nelson was appointed Circuit Judge; a few years later he was Associate Judge, and in 1831 he became Chief Justice of the New York Supreme Court. In 1845 he became a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and resigned twentyfive years later on account of his great age. He was a very eminent jurist and adjudicated upon many of the most difficult questions of national and constitutional law. 41
Among "Heads of Families" in Montgomery County,
[page 192]in the First Census of the United States (1790), John, George, Michael and Timothy McCarthy are listed, and John McCarty is referred to in 1793 as an Adjutant in Veedor's brigade of Montgomery County militia. The "Minutes of the Council of Appointment" in the records at Albany show that John McCarthy, who is therein described as "Brigade Major and Inspector of Militia," was appointed "first Judge" on March 6, 1809, and a New York weekly newspaper 42 in the year 1811 referred to "John McCarty, the first Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for the County of Montgomery." There is no mention of any of these McCarthys in histories of Montgomery County, and enquiries addressed to people acquainted with local history and tradition bring forth no reliable information. Among others enumerated as "Heads of Families" in the Census of 1790, are: Jeremiah McCarthey and Daniel McCarty, both of the town of Stephentown, Darbin (Darby) McCarty of Rensselaerwyck, David McCarty of Watervliet, Dennis McCarty of Hoosick, John McCarty of Saratoga, Neil McCarty of Duanesburgh, and William McCarty of Ballston, all in Albany County as then constituted. Others listed by the Census enumerators as "Heads of Families" were Daniel McCarty of Beekman, Dutchess County; Charles McCarty of Canaan, Columbia County; John McCarty of Claverack in the same County; John McCarty of Kingston, Ulster County; John McCarty of Middletown, Ulster County, and Thomas McCarty of New Cornwall, Orange County.
One of the best known citizens of Orleans County, N. Y., during the first decade of the last century was a Captain McCarty. When the second war with England began the citizens of the town of Gaines assembled and
[page 193]elected McCarty to lead them in their defense of the settlements and he is listed among the American officers taken prisoner at the battle of Queenston on October 27, 1812. 43 He was released in exchange for an English officer and it is evident he rejoined his comrades, since he is noted for his daring capture of the British soldiers who burned the town of Lewiston in December, 1813. A New York soldier of the name who fought at Lewiston was William McCarthy, who enlisted at Utica in the Sixth regiment of United States Infantry and he is mentioned among the wounded in the hospital at Lewiston in 1813. 44 Another William McCarthy served as Captain in a volunteer corps of three companies organized in New York City for the War of 1812, as appears from an order dated "Headquarters, New York, 17th. day, November, 1812." Still another of the New York McCarthys, Charles, is mentioned among the "Americans imprisoned at Halifax in the War of 1812. "He served as a seaman on the privateer, Science, when captured by the English warship, Emulous, on August 24, 1812.
In the years 1683 and 1685 a considerable body of Irish settlers located at Cohansey in Salem County, and in the adjoining counties of Gloucester and Camden, New Jersey, among whom were people bearing such names as Carty or McCarthy, Sullivan, Sweeney, Fitzgerald, Leahey, Hurley, Healy, Lynch, Dunn, Conron, Caffrey, Flanagan, Dwyer, O'Donoghue, and so on. In the "West Jersey Records" 45 they are described as "from Tipperary County in Ireland," but, that it would appear some were also from Waterford, or that other colonists afterwards came from that part of Ireland, is seen from the fact that one of the oldest towns in this
[page 194]part of New Jersey, Waterford in Gloucester County, was so named in the year 1695 after the City of the same name in Ireland. 46
In the "East Jersey Records of Deeds," 47 under date of December 21, 1696, there is an entry of a conveyance from "Tege alias Timothie Cartie to John Molleson, both of Piscataway, for five acres of meadow land," and in a deed for certain lands adjoining his, dated June 27, 1694, he is described as "Tege Cartee." It would appear, however, that a family of the name was in New Jersey even before this time. John McCarty and Ann Harmon of Woodbridge, N. J., were granted a marriage license by the Province of New York on July 9, 1684, and although the license was recorded in New York it is evident that the bridegroom was a resident of New Jersey, since he is described in the record as "John Mccarty of Piscataway." 48 Dennis McCarty signed as witness to the will of Matthews Lane of Middletown, Monmouth County, N. J., on June 27, 1729, 49 and in the accounts of the executors, Cornelius Lane and C. Scank, as filed in court, the name of Daniel McCarthy appears among a number of creditors of the estate. Daniel McCarthy is also mentioned in the New Jersey Archives 50 in "an account of money paid from the estate of John and Ann Gordon." There is no reference to the date, but it follows an entry of the year 1729.
"Dennis McCarthy of the Town and County of Burlington, Yeoman," died intestate and on August 6, 1737, letters of administration to his estate 51 were granted to
[page 195]his brother-in-law, Benjamin Butterworth, whose marriage to Ann McCarthy, sister of Dennis, is on record at Burlington under date of January 18, 1736. There is a place called McCartyville in Burlington County, noted for many years for its extensive paper mills, which in all probability was named for a descendant of Dennis McCarthy. Another Dennis McCarthy signed as witness to the will of Thomas Wright of Salem County on January 11, 1745, 52 and the inventory of the estate of Stacey Beakes of Trenton, dated November 30, 1745, mentioned the "obligations of Archabel McCarty," and "Archibald McCarty's account" was filed in court on March 11, 1755. 53
"Dennis McCarty of Gloucester County" died intestate, and "John McCarty of Gloucester County, Yeoman," was appointed administrator on March 19, 1746, and his valuation of the property of the deceased was fixed at 41 pounds 0s. 9d. 54 In the accounts rendered by the administrator of the estate of Benjamin Runion of Somerset County -letters of administration granted March 3, 1747- Daniel McCartey was mentioned. Thomas Bates was granted letters of administration to the estate of Owen McCarty of Gloucester County 55 on May 6, 1748, and, in the inventory he valued the estate at 20 pounds. 3s. 0d. The will of Burgess Hall of Bordentown was dated September 27, 1748, and among those indebted to the deceased, as shown by the accounts of the executor, were Matthew McCarty and Oliver Carty. 56 In the inventory of the estate of George Williams of Shrewsbury, filed in Monmouth County Court on June 12,
[page 196]1751, James McCarty is included among a number of debtors and creditors of the deceased. 57 It is clear from these items, and from the entries covering "New Jersey Marriage Licenses" in the Archives of the State, beginning as early as 1733, that there were several separate and distinct families of the name in the Western part of New Jersey at this early period; but, as to the history of these people, there seems to be no way of determining now and all efforts to secure further data have been unavailing.
James McCarty is mentioned in the Pennsylvania Gazette of June 8, 1758, as a settler at Minnisink, Sussex County, and according to the Pennsylvania Chronicle of March 13-20, 1769, "Hugh McCarty, an Irish servant lad, about 19 years of age," was apprenticed to "Thomas Thorn of Chesterfield Township, West-NewJersey."
Others of the name are mentioned in the Revolutionary records of New Jersey. For example, Dennis McCarty was a Sussex County militiaman in 1775 and afterwards served in the Fourth Battalion, Second Establishment of State troops; Hugh McCarty served in a Somerset County militia regiment; another Hugh McCarty was a soldier in Captain Ten Eyck's company of the First Establishment of State troops and afterwards in the Continental Line; Isaac Carty was a sergeant of the Second Battalion, Second Establishment; William Carty served in a Battalion of militia from Salem County and also in the Continental army, and among the men belonging to an Elizabeth, N. J., company of militia who "enlisted as volunteers in order to take the ship Blue Mountain Valley on January 2,
[page 197]1776," was Thomas McCarty. Clark McCarty was "Forage Master of New Jersey troops" throughout the Revolution and John McCartey was "Commissary of Hides and Assistant Commissary of Issues" in the New Jersey Line. Those items show that the McCarthys were settled in widely separated parts of New Jersey before and during the period of the Revolution. "Francis McCarthy, son of Captain Francis McCarthy," is mentioned in the Parish Church records of Rockaway, Morris County, N. J., in 1781. Evidently, the elder McCarthy was a sea-captain, since the records say he was "lost at sea."
Several soldiers of the name appear in the musterrolls of the New Jersey regiments in the War of 1812, among them Artis or Arthur McCarthy, whose regiment is not stated; Aaron McCarthy, of the First Light Dragoons ; Aaron McCarty of the New Jersey Corps of Artillery and Michael McCarty of the 2nd New Jersey Detailed Militia. Thomas Carty enlisted in the 3rd Artillery and Isaac Carty served in Capt. Anthony Gale's New Jersey Detachment, and afterwards on the American frigate Gueriere until the close of the war. And in the war with Algiers in 1815, Isaac Carty also served on the Gueriere under Lieutenant Joseph L. Kuhn and was discharged at Boston in 1819 upon the expiration of his term of service. For some strange reason that does not appear, one of the New Jersey McCartys seems to have been untrue to his name and race, since the name of Duncan McCarthy is included in a list of twenty-seven persons in Middlesex Country, against whom "inquisitions were found in August, 1778, for having either joined the army of the King of Great Britain or have otherwise offended against the form of their allegiance
[page 198]to this State." 58 Later, on February 1, 1779, Duncan McCarty's name appears in a list of persons in Middlesex County whose property was attainted.
[page 199]CHAPTER VIII
THE MAC CARTYS IN MASSACHUSETTS
The Celtic element in New England-Thaddeus MacCarty, a leading merchant and property owner of Boston, 1664-1705, mentioned frequently in the Provincial records-Captain Thomas MacCarty, mariner-Charles and Thomas MacCarty in the Revolution in New England, 1689--Adventurous career of Captain Thaddeus MacCarty-Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty of Worcester, a patriot of the Revolution-Florence MacCarty, a large property owner at Boston and RoxburyIf the statements of New England historians, as to the racial origin of the early immigrants, were to be accepted without question, we would be compelled to believe that all of the inhabitants of that section of the country in the seventeenth century were of English blood and that at the time of the Revolution eighty-five per cent of the population were of that class. Some historical writers assert that Massachusetts was "more English than any English Shire," and that the people of Boston especially were "of purer English blood and more unmixed in race than those of any locality in old England." Whether these statements were made with deliberate intent to deceive, as has so often been said, or that they were the result of the failure of the historians to examine the records, is immaterial; the fact is, that while the majority of the inhabitants undoubtedly were of English descent, a vast number of people of other races were resident in New England in Colonial times. This is amply proven by the names which are found in the records of the time.
[page 200]As to the Celtic element in New England, it is true that the social and political conditions in Colonial days were a serious deterrent to the settlement of immigrants from Ireland, especially those of Catholic faith; but, notwithstanding this, a great number of names of the most distinctive and obvious Irish origin appear in the seventeenth and eighteenth century records of nearly all the towns and settlements in the Colony of Massachusetts Bay. The old Celtic patronymics are readily recognizable, and there can be no mistaking of the nationality of the people who bore such names. It may reasonably be supposed that the majority of these people were "redemptioners" or "servants" who were forced into exile by the alien rulers of the "Old Land"; yet, some of these, or their children, in time rose above their lowly surroundings and are numbered among the substantial people of their respective localities. But, others unquestionably were voluntary expatriates who crossed the sea at their own expense, on the chance that the conditions in the colonies, even among those who despised the Irish on account of their race and religion, could be no worse than they were at home. Among both classes we find a number of McCarthys.
The first of the family at Boston seems to have been Thaddeus MacCarty, whose name found a place in the town records of more than two and a half centuries ago. When the will of Elkanah Gladman, merchant of Boston, dated February 8, 1664, was filed in Suffolk County court house on November 23, 1664, the inventory included "Thaddeus Macartye" as one of a number of persons indebted to the estate. 1 In the Granary Burial Ground on Tremont Street, Boston, there is a stone over
[page 201]the grave of Charles, the eldest son of Thaddeus MacCarty, the inscription on which reads as follows:
In the town books of Boston there is an entry of the birth, on March 21, 1666, of "Francis, son of Thaddeus and Eliza MacCarty," and of Thaddeus, son of the same parents, on September 12, 1670. They also had a son named Samuel, recorded as born at Roxbury, "9th mo. 3rd day, 1675," and two daughters born at Boston, Margaret MacCarty on February 25, 1676, and Catherine MacCarty on January 23, 1679. "Thaddeus Macartie" appears among the "officers chosen for the year insuinge at a publique meetinge of the inhabitants of this towne" held on March 13, 1674. 2 As "Thade Maccarty" he is recorded as "Town Constable of Boston" in 1683, while in a record of a lawsuit, in which Ephriam Turner was the plaintiff, tried before the "Court of Assistants of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay," in the year 1680, the name of the defendant is written down "Thadews Micarter." On this matter of the spelling of names, in New England annals there are many examples of the ortographical ideas of the custodians of the public records, and there is no more striking illustration of this than the case of Thaddeus MacCarty. The spelling of names in those days was not regarded as a matter of any importance and it is amusing to note the vicissitudes which
[page 202]certain names had to undergo from the whims of clergymen, town officers, court clerks, registrars of wills and deeds and other keepers of public records. This is especially noticeable in the case of Irish names. The public officials generally were of English or Dutch descent, and as many of the Irish names sounded strangely in their ears and the newcomers used the old Gaelic pronounciation, the town clerks and others wrote them down phonetically or as best suited their fancy, which often resulted in the most ludicrous name formations, and cases are noted where the recorded name bore hardly any resemblance to the original. In the pursuit of historical research, the caprices of town clerks and other officials in their manner of spelling names are often a source of trouble and vexation. And to a person acquainted with the ancient gaelic nomenclature, it is really tragical to see the way in which historic Irish patronymics were literally "butchered" in the records, especially when we consider that in most cases the descendants of these people accepted and used the changed names.
In the Boston tax lists of the year 1674, among the "names of psons retable" 3 as certified to by Thomas Bingley, Constable, there is an entry reading "Tad Mecartour," and in still another list, "Theodeus Mecarter" and "John Stacey, his (Maccartys) servant." 4 In another part of the same record there is an entry reading: "Mr. Carroll at Micarter's," 5 the explanation of this being that "Mr. Carroll," the person assessed for taxes, was a "lodger" at Thaddeus MacCarty's house. In the tax lists of 1676 he is recorded as "Thaddeus Macartie" in 1681, "Thadeus Macktie" ; in 1683, "Thade Macarty" ; in 1687, "Thadeus Mccarty" ; in 1688, "Thad-
[page 203]deus Mockarty"; in 1691, "Thadeos Mccarty"; in 1692, "thadews micarty," and in 1695, "Thaddeus MacKarta." After that time the recording clerks invariably wrote down the name "Maccarty," although in later years some of Thaddeus' descendants spelled their name "Maccarity" and "Mccarty," doubtless because it was written in that way in public records and probably they wished to preserve the spelling so as to conform to wills and deeds and other legal instruments. A glance at the tax records for the year 1687 indicates that, at that early day, Thaddeus MacCarty was a fairly substantial man. In that year there were only sixty-two persons in Boston who were taxed 50 pounds. or over; the average tax per person was 69 pounds. and the amount assessed against MacCarty was 20 pounds. for his house and 30 pounds. for his business, or 50 pounds in all. 6
As far as time would permit, I have searched for some information concerning the early life of Thaddeus MacCarty, but without success, and while he is mentioned by several historians and genealogists of Massachusetts none of them offer any suggestion as to his antecedents, his place of birth or the time of his arrival in the colonies. Naturally, I assume that he was a native of Ireland and I hardly think there can be any doubt about it. A statement by Mr. James Savage, a former president of the New England historic and Genealogical Society, that he was born in the year 1640, 7 is confirmed by a notice of his death in the Boston News-Letter in 1705 and by the inscription on his tombstone in the Granary Burial Ground, and while it is evident that Savage also was unable to find trace of his
[page 204]early life and antecedents, I do not think, in view of the obviously Celtic origin of the name, that he was justified in saying that "the Maccartys are of unknown descent." 8 However, Savage may not have intended to say that the MacCartys are not of Irish descent, but that the immediate forebears of;the Boston pioneer were unknown or could not be traced.
Strange to say, Thaddeus MacCarty is not mentioned at all where one would naturally expect to find him. It is true that Savage mentions him, but with scant respect, since he dismisses him with a few lines, and Justin Winsor also seems to have regarded him as of no importance, for in his great work of more than 2500 pages he fails to give him even casual notice, and the only appearance of his name in Winsor's History of Boston is when it is included in lists of other early residents of the town, from which it could not very well be eliminated. Nor does the name appear among the "Pioneers of Massachusetts" in the elaborate work under that title written by the New England historian, Rev. Charles Henry Pope, and although some of Thaddeus' descendants are mentioned in the genealogies of several of the pioneer families of Massachusetts with which they were connected by marriage, no member of the MacCarty family in New England seems to have had sufficient pride in their history to "write up" their genealogy.
My judgment is that the progenitor of the original MacCarty families in Massachusetts was Thaddeus of Boston, and it is highly probable that he came to this country in one of the many ship-loads of Irish "redemptioners" who were transported from Ireland in the middle of the seventeenth century. While such records
[page 205]as those of the General Court, the Court of Assistants of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, the Plymouth Colony records, early land grants, town books, etc., contain references to many of those Irish "redemptioners," only comparatively few of them are mentioned by name, and among these Thaddeus MacCarty does not appear. Nor is there any entry of his marriage in the records of marriages columnized in the town of Boston.
It is seen that at the time his name first appears in Massachusetts records (1664) he was twenty-four years old, and it is probable he married in that year, since his first child was born in 1665. Prendergast 9 has shown from English and Irish records that a great number of boys and girls of tender age and many of them of the best families were transported from Ireland to the Colonies daring the period, 1651 to 1655, so that it is possible Thaddeus MacCarty was a resident of Boston before 1664. If he came to this country as a "redemptioner" and had to work his way up from that lowly station, he must have been a youth of uncommon attainments for the time, since it appears that he was established as a "shopkeeper" at Boston at the age of twenty-five, and there is no indication of his having been at any time in "service" or that his business was carried on in partnership with any other person. When an immigrant of his name and race could achieve such success in business as to own his own sailing ships, and he appears side by side with other historic characters of the time, we can well imagine that the position occupied by Thaddeus MacCarty in the town of Boston was one of no small importance.
However, it may be an error to assume that either
[page 206]Thaddeus, or the Florence MacCarty hereinafter referred to, was of the "redemptioner" class, for it is observed that some of the noted families of McCartys who were in Virginia at this time also bore the Christian names, Thaddeus and Florence, and it is probable that the Massachusetts and Virginia McCartys were of the same immediate family in Ireland. Irish histories and genealogical works show how very popular these names were among the MacCarthys of the direct line of descent from the great MacCarthy family of Munster, and as we know that the Virginia branches were descended from the MacCarthys of Cork and Kerry, it may not be assuming too much to say that Thaddeus and Florence of Boston were natives of some part of the County of Cork or Kerry. And, in this connection, it is also noted from the will of Charles McCarthy of East Greenwich, R. I., dated February 18, 1682, that he was a native of Kinsale in the County of Cork. 10
The fact that Thaddeus of Boston, in his later years used as his seal the arms and crest which were an exact counterpart of the coat of arms of the Earl of Clancarthy, in itself indicates that he was descended from that noble family. This information I have obtained from the New England Historic-Genealogical Society, which published an account of the "Seals from the Jeffries Collection of Manuscripts" 11 in the possession of the descendants of David Jeffries, for many years Treasurer of the City of Boston in the eighteenth century. This collection shows that Thaddeus MacCarty used in his seal the arms and crest of the MacCarthy family of Ireland in the direct line from MacCarthy Mor:
[page 207]Arms: arg. a stag trippant.
But, whether Thaddeus MacCarty's advent in America was in the modest role of a "servant" to some Puritan planter, or that he came over as "a gentleman emigrant of means," as some few of the Irish settlers about this time are described, seems immaterial, for his name alone warrants our including him among the pioneer Irishmen of New England. He appears with such frequency in Massachusetts records of the last quarter of the seventeenth century, especially in connection with deeds and conveyances of real estate, that I must assume he was one of the leading business men of his day in the town of Boston. And in support of that assumption, I find from the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society 13 that in the year 1691 "Mr. Thomas Brindley and Mr. Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston" acted as "sureties on the bond of John Usher l4 Treasurer of New England." The amount of security is not named, but, the fact of his selection as bondsman for so important an official stamps him as a man of considerable prominence and substance.
In Robert N. Toppan's account of Edmund Randolph, 15 Thaddeus MacCarty is mentioned several times, and among the documents reproduced in this great work there is a letter dated June 7, 1684, to Edmund Randolph, signed by Joseph Dudley and Thaddeus "MacKarty." This letter may also be found in the Collec-
[page 208]tions of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 16 and although it is clear that it referred to a suit at law in which the government of the Colony was a party, there is nothing to indicate why MacCarty signed it ; but, the mere fact that he joined Dudley as a migratory strengthens the assumption that Thaddeus MacCarty was one of the important men of ha day in New England. While the signature is spelled "MacKarty," it is noted that Thaddeus signed his will twenty-one years later "MacCarty." Randolph and Dudley both occupied important posts in the Colonial Government. Randolph was Surveyor-General of Massachusetts, and Dudley was Commissioner of the United Colonies, 1677 to 1681; Agent to England, 1682 ; President of New England, 1684; Chief Justice, 1687; Chief Justice of New York, 1690 to 1693 ; and Governor of Massachusetts from 1702 to 1705.
A further indication that this American Irishman must have occupied a prominent station in Boston's early days is the fact that, in conjunction with four other citizens of the town, he is mentioned by the famous Governor Thomas Dongan 17 of New York in a letter to the "Lord President," dated "N. Y. September ye 18th. 1685," 18 as well as in a similar communication from Matthew Plowman of New York to Edmund Randolph of Boston, dated November 9, 1688. 19 And, as an evidence that his business transactions carried him far afield, "Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston" is mentioned in New York records under date of October 7, 1677, in
[page 209]connection with the settlement of certain accounts with parties in the Province of New York. 20
Among the transactions in which he appears is that of "Surety to the Towns for Benjamin Smeade, bellowes maker, and his family" on September 25, 1682, and on September 25, 1683, he and Samuel Shrimpton 21 became "Sureties to the Towns for Samuel Boulder, Taylr and his family." 22 On October 1, 1683, he acted as surety on a bond of 100 pounds given by Robert Mason and William Barefoote "for the proper administration of the estate of Sylvester Herbert of Great Island," 23 and on August 18, 1686, one William Ardell executed a conveyance to Thaddeus MacKarty covering "the Ketch Rose then on a voyage to Barbados, and one-half of the pink, Blessing, then on a voyage to Holland." 24 Thomas Brattle, Treasurer of the Town of Boston, executed a deed to Thaddeus MacCarty on July 20, 1694, 25 and William Mumford and wife conveyed lands and buildings in Boston to Thaddeus MacKarty by deed dated July 23, 1697. 26 On March 5, 1701, according to the records of the General Court of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, Thaddeus MacCarty signed a "petition for a bankrupt law," with forty-four other persons in Boston. 27
He seems to have owned much land and house property in Boston and vicinity and also was part owner of lands along the Merrimack River, in what is now
[page 210]the State of New Hampshire, in the vicinity of Lawrence and Lowell. One of the largest land transactions in which his name figures was a tract laid out on the Merrimack for prospective settlers about the year 1687. In the New Hampshire State Papers 28 there is a copy of a deed dated April 15, 1686, by which "Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston, Merchant, with John Usher and Charles Lidgett, also Merchants of Boston," purchased from "Robert Tufton Mason, Proprietor of the Province of New Hampshire," a tract of land described as "lying and being on ye Westerly side of the River of Merrimack, beginning at the East End of Souhegennock River where the same issues into Merrimack aforesaid, and thence running up Westward along the sd Sou River six English miles and a half," etc. This deed was recorded in the Registry of Deeds of Suffolk County on November 10, 1686. 29
Among the "persons in Boston who took the Oath of Allegiance administered by Gouvernour John Leverett on November 11, 1678," were Thaddeus MacKarty, Jeremiah Conoway, John Dowgin, Richard Talley, Phillip Mullen, John Mackemoryn, Michael Dalton, Samuel Kelly, John County, Dennis MackDaniel, Thomas Hearn, Thomas Sexton, Cornelius White and Matthew Collins, and it is also of interest to note that on April 21, 1679, Governor Samuel Bradstreet administered the oath to Bryan Murphey, Bartholomew Sutton, John Gill, William Dempsey and John Casey. On the same date Jonathan Casey, Samuel and William Garey, and Peter O'Kelly also took the oath at Roxbury and William MackKenny and John Mackanah at Hingham, Mass. 30
[page 211]I should not be surprised if the majority of these were Irishmen.
Many references to Thaddeus MacCarty are found in the "Annals of King's Chapel," Boston, and in the history of "The Military Company of the Massachusetts," now known as the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. In fact, he was one of the founders of King's Chapel and was present at its first meeting on June 15, 1686, 31 and under date of March 24, 1688, the following "warrant" by Governor Edmund Andros appears in the Massachusetts records : "Pursuant to a Resolve in Council, I hereby appoint and authorize you, Captain Anthony Howard, Captain William White and Mr. Thaddeus MacKarty, to ask and receive the free and voluntary contributions of any of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston towards the building and erecting of a House or Place for the service of the Church of England." 32 His name is spelled in the church records "Maccartie," "MacKerty" and "Mackarty," according to the ortographical ideas of the different Ministers. In 1689, we find him subscribing the sum of seven pounds. 10s. toward the church funds and on "Wednesday, 8th. Appall, 1694, being Easter week, at a meeting then held, Mr. Thaddeus MacKarty and Francis Foxcroft were elected Church Wardens for ye Yeare ensuing." 33 Both were reflected on March 26, 1695, and in 1699, 1703 and 1705 Thaddeus was a Vestryman of the parish. Thaddeus MacCarty is mentioned in the records of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company among "the new members recruited, 1681-2," 34 as well as another
[page 212]soldier named Charles MacCarty, who was "badly wounded in the expedition against Quebec in 1690." 35 Thaddeus is described by the historian of the Artillery Company as "a shopkeeper" and as "holding a town office in Boston in 1674," and it is evident that he continued as a member of "Captain Allan's Company" of the artillery, for several years, since "Thaddeus McCartei" is so mentioned in the Town Books under date of August 6, 1698. 36
He appears to have been interested at one time in some business enterprise with an Irishman named Edward Mortimer, and both are mentioned in the "Journal of John Dunton," 37 an Englishman who came to Massachusetts in 1685. In this "Journal" Dunton referred to several prominent persons in Boston whom he met, among them "Mr. Maccarty" and "Mr. Mortimer, who came from Ireland, an accomplished merchant, a person of great modesty who could answer the most abstruse points in algebra, navigation and dialling." There is no doubt that the "Mr. Maccarty" here referred to was Thaddeus. Edward Mortimer is mentioned in the Town Books of Boston of the year 1678 as "an Irishman" and as a member of the fire engine company in that year, and his name appears in the Boston tax lists of the year 1695.
The Boston News-Letter of June 18-25, 1705, contained this announcement: "On Monday the 18th. instant Dyed Mr. Thaddeus Maccarty of this Town, Merchant, aged 65 years."- He was buried in the Granary Burial Ground at Boston, and in that ancient graveyard, where rest the remains of such historic figures in Amer-
[page 213]ican history as John Hancock, Paul Revere, Peter Faneuil, Samuel Adams, Robert Treat Paine, James Otis, Governor James Sullivan and many others, may be seen the grave of Thaddeus MacCarty and a stone bearing an inscription, reading:
His will is recorded at the Registry of Probate for Suffolk County, Mass. 38 The document seems to be entirely in his own handwriting and probably was prepared by himself, and it is interesting not only as indicating that he was a religious person, but as an indication of the confidence he placed in his wife, to whom he bequeathed "the residue and remainder of my real and personal estate... not doubting but she will take care prudently to manage and dispose of what shall remain for the best and utmost advantage of my children." The following is a verbatim copy of it, secured from the probate records:
"In the Name of God Amen I Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston in New England Shopkeeper being weak in Body but of Sound mind and disposing memory (thanks be therefore given to Almighty) Doe make this my last will and Testament as followeth.
"Imprimis I commit my Soul into the hands of my Almighty Creatour trusting through the merrits of my Saviour Christ to obtain the remission of my Sins; my body to the Earth to be decently and providently Interrd; and as for my wordly Estate after my Debts paid and funeral expenses discharg'd I do hereby give, devise & bequeath unto my Dear and loveing Wife Elizabeth the residue and remainder of my real and personal Estate to her, her heir's and assigns forever, not
[page 214]doubting but she will take care prudently to mannage and dispose of what shall remain for the best and utmost advantage of my children. And I So hereby revoke all former Wills by me heretofore made and appoint my ad Wife to be Sole Executrix of this my last Will.
"In Witness whereof I published the same and set to my hand and seal this Twenty fourth day of May Anno Domini Seventeen hundred and five.
If further testimony were wanted in support of the statement that Thaddeus MacCarty was a person of importance among his townsmen, it is furnished to us by the signatories to the attestation clause of his will. Christopher Kilby was a Boston merchant and is mentioned frequently in local records, and in all probability Kilby Street in Boston was named for him. William Crow was one of three committeemen who were appointed in March, 1677, to distribute to the township of Plymouth its proportionate share of "The Irish Donation" of 1676, contributed by the people of Ireland "for the relieffe of such as are Impoverished, Distressed and in Necessitie by the late Indian War." 39 John Ballentine was a Captain of the Artillery Company of which Thaddeus and Florence MacCarty were members, and a description of him says "he was a prominent man of affairs in Boston, which town he represented in 1726, and in the General Court of Massachusetts." 40
[page 215]Thaddeus MacCarty's wife survived him and continued to live in a brick house in Brattle Square, which the family had occupied for many years, but in a great fire in Boston on October 2, 1710, which threatened the destruction of the town, several houses in Brattle Square were "blown up in order to stop the progress of the flames," among them that of Mrs. Elizabeth MacCarty. The owners petitioned the town for reimbursement for their losses, and at "A meeting of her Majesty's Justices of the Town of Boston" on October 20, 1710, Mrs. MacCarty was "allowed the Summe of Sixty pounds for the damage done to her." 41 After the building was repaired, it became known as "the White House" 42 because it was painted white, and there is a record in the year 1711 showing that "Elizabeth, wife of Thaddeus MacKarty of Boston," sold to Arthur Savage "land on the westerly side of Brattle Square, Boston, with the house standing thereon." This house was the residence of Arthur Savage until his death in 1735, and in his will, dated December 10, 1733, he described it as his "Mansion House in Brattle Square," together with a house and land adjoining. It was afterwards occupied by William Bollan, son-in-law of Governor Shirley of Massachusetts, and subsequently by the famous John Adams when he first removed to Boston from Braintree. 43
Mrs. Elizabeth MacCarty is mentioned in the Town Books of the year 1716 as a resident of Brattle Street, and her death seven years later at the age of eighty-two, was mentioned in this curious manner in the "Diary of
[page 216]Jeremiah Bumstead" 44 of Boston under date of June 8, 1723: "About ye 7 or 8 Day Mrs. Mccarty and her Daughter Catte dyed and buryed together on ye 10 Day," and their graves may be seen in the Granary Burial Ground at Boston, with two separate tombstones bearing the names of Elizabeth and Katharine Maccarty. Under date of May 7, 1724, there is an entry in the Suffolk County probate records showing that Judge Samuel Sewall appointed Caleb Lymon, Jacob Royall and Benjamin Simpson, "Commissioners with full power to receive and Examine all Claims of the Several Creditors of Elizabeth Maccarty, late of Boston, Widow, deceased," whose "estate is Represented to be Insolvent and not Sufficient to pay her just Debts." However, the records of Middlesex County indicate that three years later, or on July 31, 1727, Thaddeus MacCarty was granted letters of administration to "the estate of Mrs. Eliza Maccarty, late of Boston, died intestate." These letters were issued in connection with "some Lands in the County of Middlesex," which were "committed to Thaddeus Maccarty of said Boston, Marriner, and he hath given Bond in one Thousand Pounds with John Greenough of same place, Shipwright, Surety."
There was a Thomas MacCarty of Boston, described as a "mariner," who in all probability was a relative of Thaddeus, but whose connection with that family I am unable to establish. Among the "Letters of Samuel Sewall," 45 Judge of the Massachusetts General Court, is one dated "Xr. 23, 1695," in which he referred to "Captain Thomas Maccarty of Boston," and in a letter dated July 31, 1696, Sewall referred to the supposed
[page 217]"death of Captain MacCarty, whose ship was said to have foundered at sea." However, the "Diary of Samuel Sewall" mentions "Captain Thomas MacCarty" as at Boston in the year 1697.
Besides this Thomas MacCarty, whose relationship, if any, to Thaddeus and Florence cannot be ascertained, it is clear there were other people of the name at Boston. The appended extracts from Massachusetts vital records show that in January, 1683, Mary MacCarty married Joseph Hunscot at Boston ; Elizabeth MacKarta married Thomas Bridgewater on April 7, 1696, and "Kathrane Maccarty" signed as witness to a bond dated November 6, 1694, filed in the Bristol County Probate Court on behalf of Mary Davis and Phillip Taber, as administrators of the estate of Phillip Taber, deceased. 46 None of these are believed to have been daughters of Thaddeus or Florence and since the birth of neither Mary, Elizabeth nor "Kathrane" MacCarty appears in the vital records, it may be that they were of the family of the mariner, Captain Thomas MacCarty, and that they came with him to this country from Ireland. However, among some old tomes on trade of the years 1696-1698 on file in the State Archives, there are several bills covering purchases of goods by Thaddeus MacCarty, and one of these, dated October 14, 1697, bears an acknowledgment signed "Mary Mccarty" and a promise by her to pay the amount to John Helden, Thaddeus MacCarty's creditor. This indicates that she was some relation of Thaddeus.
There are two Thomas MacCartys mentioned in Massachusetts records of this period, viz.-the Captain Thomas before alluded to and Thomas who was a student at Harvard College in the year 1689. In the New England
[page 218]Historic-Genealogical Register 47 under the year 1691, there is a "List of Harvard Graduates" and among the names is Thomas Maccarty, and in May, 1694, his name is included as a contributor in the sum of 2 pounds. toward a fund to purchase pews for Kings' Chapel. 48 Although I can find no record of his birth, I assume he was a son of Thomas MacCarty, the sea captain, since neither Thaddeus nor Florence had a son named Thomas. That Thomas MacCarty, Junior, was a spirited youth and took a forward part in the overthrow of the Andros government in the year 1689, known as "The Revolution in New England," is clear from references to him that appear in histories of the event. Sir Edmund Andros had been "King's Deputy in the Province of New York" for several years, but in 1686 King James commissioned him "Governor of his Royal Dominion of New England," which included all the territory from the Delaware River to Nova Scotia, superseding Dongan, the famous Irish Governor of the Province of New York. On December 20, 1686, Andros arrived in Boston and assumed the government of the Province.
In the History of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, written by Thomas Hutchinson, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, published at Boston in 1766, Andros is accused of "corruption in office" and his subordinates are charged with "extortion," with the levying of ex-cessive and unnecessary taxes and, having come to Massachusetts possessed of an inordinate "land hunger," they put titles and property in jeopardy" by their illegal actions. Andros is also accused of arming the Indians, unfriendly to the English, who in 1688 had begun a new war against the English. A curious side light is thrown
[page 219]upon the occurrences of the time in a pamphlet printed at Boston in 1691, 49 entitled "The Revolution in New England Justified," by Edmund Rawson and Samuel Sewall, in which, among the testimony brought in at an investigation of the Andros government, there is included "the testimony of Joseph and Mary Graves and John Rutter, taken at Boston on January 28, 1689." These witnesses testified that they had been "informed by Solomon Thomas, an Indian," that "when the fight at the Eastward should be... if the English get the day, in the Spring the French and Irish would come to Boston," which "was the first place to be destroyed and after that the country towns would be all won." Which shows that even to the American Indians the Irish people were not unknown!
The "Revolution in New England" took place in 1689 and Andros and his subordinate officials were thrown into prison, but the Governor escaped and took refuge in Rhode Island. About this time Thomas Dongan, the deposed Governor of New York, had gone to Rhode Island where his cousin, another Thomas Dongan, or Dungan, a member of the Rhode Island Assembly, resided, and it was suspected that Andros and the Dongans would try to effect a juncture with the Indians and place themselves again in power. Great alarm was felt as to what might happen, and when five young men from Boston turned up suddenly in New York Governor Leisler at once suspected them as emissaries from Andros and that the dreaded Andros himself was in the immediate vicinity. Whatever the nature of the enterprise was, the histories of the period do not disclose and there seems to be nothing on record
[page 220]concerning it; but, as a participant in it we find a spirited and adventurous member of the fighting race of McCarthy. Among the documents reproduced in Hutchinson's history there is a letter from Leisler, dated New York, September 3, 1689, to Governor Bradstreet of Massachusetts, in which he said:
"The escape of Sir Edmund and his arrival at Rhode Island, where Colonel Dongan, did, the same day, land some of his people, and himself not far off, caused a jealousy in us of a bad design. In this interim of time arrived here Mr. John Emerson, John Leverett, William Brattle, Thomas McCarty and John Perry, from the ferry; after watch set in the night, well armed and as reported, went into a tavern, where doors and windows were shut, a man on horseback was despatched post out of the town, made us all believe them of Sir Edmund's people, and he himself not far off. I sent for the strangers, of whom I demanded a pass; they said they had one, but lost it ; they knew nobody but Major Brockholst and Captain Locker, two known papists, whereby I suspected them to be really of Sir Edmund's people and beat the drum." Leisler then related how he had his soldiers search the house where the strangers from Boston lodged, and finding from their letters and papers that they were "disapprovers of our actions," he "alarmed the town" and "got immediately 500 men courageously armed, and while the committee read the letters, I sent out parties to search for strangers," etc. Leisler went on to say that, finding nothing "against their characters," he "released the said gentlemen." 50
A footnote in Hutchinson's work 51 says "the first four persons named in Leisler's letter (Emerson, Lev-
[page 221]erect, Brattle and McCarty), belonged to the College at Cambridge." What became of Thomas MacCarty and his companions in New York after their release is not related, but it is evident that they were permitted to return to Boston, since MacCarty's death is recorded there in the year 1698. All of his companions in the enterprise became men of prominence in New England affairs.
Several references to this incident may be seen in O'Callaghan's "Documentary History of New York." 52 In a letter to Robert Treat, Governor of Connecticut, dated August 28, 1689, Leisler also said the "five strangers" from Boston "knew but papists in this toune," and in an affidavit of one Bartholomew Le Roux concerning the affair, taken before Leisler on September 25, 1689, the affiant stated: "We hold certain information that there was Eighty or a hundred men coming from Boston & other places that were hunted away, no doubt not for their goodies & that there were several of them Irish and Papist & the Governor had designed to take them in the fort yt which they would not suffer. That a good part of the soldiers that were in the fort already were papist and that they (the Governor and his people) thought themselves not secure," etc. As is well known, Governor Dongan was a Catholic and during his term of office he was instrumental in bringing several Irish Catholics to New York, forcibly, some of these were the "Irish and Papist" referred to in the above quoted document, and since Andros himself, although a Protestant, favored the Catholics, and it is known there were Catholics residing in Rhode Island at the time, in all probability they were among the "Eighty or a hundred men coming from Boston and
[page 222]other places that were hunted away," and that their purpose in coming to New York was to try and wean away from the royal cause the ,"papist" soldiers, "a good part" of whom, doubtless, were Irishmen. Whether or not Thomas MacCarty and his companions had any connection with these men does not appear.
Savage refers to one Charles Maccarty who was "badly wounded in the expedition against Quebec in 1690." In "the expedition against Quebec" under Sir William Phips, Lieutenant-Governor of Massachusetts, the Colonial government despatched several warships and bodies of troops raised mainly in Middlesex, Worcester and Suffolk Counties, and among the latter was a body of men known as "The Boston Regiment," as well as "The Military Company of the Massachusetts," both under the command of John Walley of Boston. From the meager accounts of it that have been published, we learn that the attempt to land troops was futile and disastrous, since the French artillery on the heights commanded the approaches to the city, and the ships were compelled to return to Boston without accomplishing the object of the expedition. A Charles MacCarty was a member of one of Walley's companies and this undoubtedly was the soldier referred to by Savage, but as there was another Charles, son of Thaddeus MacCarty, who died on October 25, 1683, it is clear there were two of the same name in Boston. This, coupled with the fact that no details of the career of the adventurous youth, Thomas MacCarty, have been ascertained beyond those already alluded to indicates the probability that there is some interesting material about this family in Massachusetts records which has not yet been discovered.
Although Thaddeus MacCarty was a member of the
[page 223]Artillery Company at this time, and Florence MacCarty was also a member of a military company, there is nothing to indicate that they were interested in the success of the movement against the French, and it is highly improbable on account of their age that they took part in the expedition. It is not unlikely, however, that Captain Thomas MacCarty had some part in it, since the papers of Samuel Sewall, already quoted, show that he was in active service as master of a vessel several years later, and it may be supposed also that Thomas MacCarty, Junior, after his return from New York, joined the expedition. Mr. John Henry Edmonds, State Archivist, in his Captain Thomas Pound, Pilot, Pirate, Cartographer and Captain an the Royal Navy, 53 reproduces from the original record in the Massachusetts archives a copy of "An Account of the Fight between the Rose ffrigatt and a ffrench Man of War off of Cape Sables," which occurred on the 24th of May, 1690. The Rose was an English ship in the service of the colonies, stationed in Boston harbor for several years, and was engaged in the expedition against the French, and among her crew were several young men from Boston. The "Account of the Fight" quoted by Edmonds gives a list of the casualties in this action, and among the wounded on the Rose was "Mr. Macarty's man Michael," who "lost his arm." There is nothing to identify "her. Macarty" with certainty, but it is clear that one of the three MacCartys, Thaddeus, Florence or Captain Thomas, was here referred to and that the "man Michael" was a sailor in his employ; but, in the absence of definite information on the point, for the present his identity remains in obscurity. Mr. Ed-
[page 224]monds assumption is that the "Mr. Mccarty" referred to was Captain Thomas.
References to people of the name turn up in the most unexpected quarters, and with little or nothing to indicate to the searcher what relationships may have existed between these various McCarthys. In the "Papers of Edmund Andros, Royal Gouvernour and President of Massachusetts," one Daniel MacKarty is mentioned under date of January 22, 1687. These papers cover the period, December 20, 1686, to April 22, 1687, and were published by the American Antiquarian Society, and one of the items noted therein is "the petition of Daniel MacKarty, setting forth that he had been a prisoner in his matyes Gaol in Boston, haveing been charged with felony," etc. The document stated that he "was tryed and acquitted by his Jury but was kept in Prison for his fees," and on the hearing of the petition, at "A Meeting of the Councils at Boston in New England on Saturday the 22 of January 1686" (1687), it was "Ordered that upon payment of his fees he (Daniel MacKarty) be forthwith discharged according to Law." 54 Who this Daniel MacKarty was, or what was his fate or fortune after his release, there is now no way of ascertaining, but it is probable that he was one of the many Irish "redemptioners" who are known to have been in New England at this period.
Thaddeus MacCarty (2nd), son of Thaddeus (1st), was a merchant and shipowner at Boston and is described by Lincoln in his "History of Worcester," as "an experienced commander ana skillful navigator in the merchant service." For many years he followed the sea in command of his own vessel and his name
[page 225]occurs frequently in the shipping records published in the Boston News-Letter among masters of vessels trading between Boston and the Islands of the West Indies and the port of London, during the first quarter of the eighteenth century. At that period, no occupation was more hazardous than that of a seaman, and in the newspapers are found many references to the pirates who roved the sea plundering merchant ships, robbing and maltreating the crews and passengers and in some cases setting fire to the vessels and marooning the crews in isolated islands along the coasts. The Boston NewsLetter published several accounts by New England seacaptains of their encounters with pirate ships, and news from other countries published in the newspapers was often six or seven months old because of the fact that American vessels had to put into other ports in order to escape the pirates.
Captain MacCarty and his crew are numbered among the victims of the sea-robbers. In the News-Letter of October 10-18, 1723, there is an account "which came hither by way of Rhode Island," of "the capture of Captain Thaddeus MacCarty, his vessel and crew, by a French pirate of 12 guns and 24 hands as they were bound for Jamaica, leaving the Master and Men ashore, but carrying away the boy and vessel." It is evident that he made his way to Boston, but that his luck did not attend him for long, for only eight months after this incident Captain MacCarty again fell in with the pirates on the high seas. The News-Letter of July 9-16, 1724, published a long "account from Virginia" relating to "a Spanish pirate ship flying British colours," which captured several vessels, one of which taken off Cape Charles on June 5th, was the brigatine, Prudent Hannah, of Boston, commanded by Captain Thomas
[page 226]Mousell, bound for Virginia. This account said, "Smith, the pilot of the Spaniard, told Mousell they had taken two New England brigantines, Maccarty and Burrington." A despatch from New York published in the News-Letter of July 16-23, said that the pirate had been captured and that four of her crew had been tried at Lewes, Del., and sentenced to death.
For some time thereafter Captain MacCarty is not mentioned in the shipping records, and it was not until November, 1724, that his name again appears among masters of vessels trading out of Boston. The NewsLetter of November 12-19, 1724, announced that Captain Thaddeus MacCarty was registered at the Boston Custom House "outward bound for Jamaica," and, that his experiences with the pirates did not deter him from the pursuit of his chosen business, is seen from the fact that his name is mentioned occasionally in the shipping records down to the year 1728. His marriage to Mary Greenough is recorded at Boston as of June 14, 1716, and the births of three of their children, Thaddeus, Elizabeth and John, are recorded in the Town Books between 1721 and 1724. His name is also mentioned as one of a number of dissatisfied worshippers at the North Church, Boston, who met on November 14, 1717, for the purpose of organizing a new church which they called the "New Brick Church." 55 As "Thades Mecharty" he was appointed "Assessor for the year ensuing" at a meeting of the Selectmen on March 13, 1726, and according to the inscription on his tombstone in the Granary Burial Ground, he died on February 22, 1729, and Letters of Administration were granted to "Mary Maccarty, wife of Thaddeus, Admx.," on March 18th of that year, and in the papers on file among the
[page 227]probate records he is styled "Capt Thaddeus Maccarty of Boston, Mariner." His estate was appraised at the sum of 1477 pounds. 14s. 6d. 56
As already stated, Thaddeus MacCarty was the father of Charles, Francis and Samuel, besides Thaddeus (2nd), and two daughters, Margaret and Catherine. Charles died in 1683 and Catherine in 1723; Margaret married Amos Angier, schoolmaster of Boston, on May 20, 1708 ; but there seems to be nothing on record concerning Francis and Samuel. However, a sea captain of the name, and possibly more than one, is referred to several times in the New York and Boston newspapers down to the year 1739, although there is no mention of their given names, and since so many of the MacCartys followed the sea, it is possible these mariners were the sons of Thaddeus (1st). As an example of the difficulty of establishing the identity of the various MacCartys whose names appear in public records, Thaddeus Maccarty is mentioned as "one of the non-resident proprietors of Dunstable, Mass.," in 1733 57 This could not have been Captain Thaddeus, since he died in 1729, and the only conclusion is that his son, Thaddeus (3rd), was the person here referred to, although he was only twelve years old in 1733. There is no mention of Thaddeus Maccarty in the town records of Dunstable, although there were several families named McArthey and McCarthy there in the early part of the last century, but these were not descendants of Thaddeus because the vital records of the town show they came from Ireland.
Thaddeus MacCarty (3rd), son of Captain Thaddeus, the Boston merchant and shipowner, was born in Bos-
[page 228]ton on July 18, 1721, and was a famous Protestant divine of the Revolutionary period. In his youth he followed the sea with his father, but relinquished that occupation and decided to study for the ministry. He graduated from Harvard College in 1739, and in a "List of individuals who may be justly regarded as the principal Literati of New England, who flourished about the beginning of the last (eighteenth) century," which I find in the New England Historic-Genealogical Register, 58 appears the name of "Thaddeus Maccarty, Student at Harvard College." The next appearance of his name is on a muster-roll dated Boston, November 11, 1741, of officers on the "Snow, Prince of Orange, Edward Tyng, Master," where he is listed as "Chaplain." The period of his service on board the vessel was from April 4, 1741, to November 11 of the same year and an entry opposite his name reads that he was "charged with use of province arms 222 days." 59
In 1742, when only twenty-one years old, he became pastor of a church at Kingston, Mass., but five years later he took charge of the Congregational church at Worcester, 60 where he officiated for thirty-seven years until his death on July 20, 1784. He was a strong supporter of the Revolutionary cause ; he took a prominent part in town and county affairs and is seen to have passed through the trials and hardships of the time with the fortitude becoming an ardent patriot. When the alarm from Lexington was received at Worcester, a company of 110 men was organized in that town and we find a member of the MacCarty family taking a prominent part in this historic event. "In a short time the
[page 229]minute men were paraded on the green under Captain Timothy Bigelow and after fervent prayer by Rev. Mr. Maccarty, they took up the line of march," on the 19th of April, 1775. Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty is mentioned no less than ninety-nine times in the town records of Worcester between 1754 and 1784 and his sons, Thaddeus and William, also appear frequently in the same records, showing that they were among the substantial citizens of the town. Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty is described as "one of the most scholarly men in New England in his day," and he is referred to frequently in Massachusetts history as an intimate friend of John Adams. He married Mary Gatcomb, the daughter of a Welsh immigrant, on September 3, 1743. To this union were born fifteen children whose names are found in the baptismal records of Worcester, as follows:
Thaddeus MacCarty, born July 29, 1744
John MacCarty, born August 16, 1745
Thaddeus MacCarty (2nd.) born December 19, 1747
Thomas MacCarty, born September 24, 1749
Mary MacCarty, born October 30, 1750
John MacCarty (2nd.) born January 10, 1752
Elizabeth MacCarty, born January 7, 1753
Samuel MacCarty, born March 23, 1755
Thomas MacCarty (2nd.), born December 5, 1755
Francis MacCarty, born September 28, 1756
Nathaniel MacCarty, born July 10, 1758
William MacCarty, born July 19, 1759
Lucy MacCarty, born June 25, 1760
Lucretia MacCarty, born July 15, 1762
Francis MacCarty (2nd.), born August 8, 1763
In the cemeteries at Worcester may be seen the graves of a number of MacCartys, and in the old burial-ground on "The Common" there is a stone over the grave of Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty, the inscription on which reads as follows:
[page 230]"Beneath this stone are deposited the remains of the Revd. Thaddeus MacCarty for 37 years Pastor of the Church in Worcester. Through the course of his Ministry he uniformly exhibited an example of the peaceable and amiable virtues of Christianity. Under a slow and painful decline he discovered an ardent love to his Master by a cheerful attention to his service and at the approach of death he patiently submitted in the full hope of a glorious Resurrection from the Grave. In testimony of his fidelity the people of his charge erected this Monument. "Obiit, July 20, 1784"
Thaddeus MacCarty (4th), son of Rev. Thaddeus, was a noted Massachusetts physician in Revolutionary times. We are told "he was a man of good education and skilled in his profession and was the first physician at Fitchburg, where he located in the year 1772." 61 The town historian relates that "the smallpox broke out in 1776, causing terrible ravages through a large section of the country, and Dr. Thaddeus MacCarty established a hospital on Buck Hill where he labored incessantly to alleviate the pains of those who were suffering." He is said to have wrought "wonderful cures." Dr. MacCarty's brother, Nathaniel, was "the first postmaster at Worcester," according to the inscription on his tombstone in the Mechanic Street burial-ground at that place. He was a merchant for some years at Petersham where he acquired a fortune, and we are told "he lived in one of the stateliest houses in Worcester where Brinley Hall later stood." 62 For some years he was Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society and when he died in the year 1831 he left the Society a cash bequest to carry on its work. Another brother, William MacCarty, was an officer in Colonel Bigelow's Massachusetts regiment in the Revolutionary war, and "at a
[page 231]meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the Town of Worcester" on March 3, 1783, he was elected Town Clerk. 63
Thaddeus MacCarty (5th) was a Massachusetts lawyer of some prominence. In the New Hampshire State Papers 64 there is a reference to him reading: "Samuel Ackley resigns from his position as Judge of the County Court, July 12, 1791, and recommends Thaddeus Maccarty as his successor."
Next to Thaddeus MacCarty (1st) Florence MacCarty was the most prominent person of the name in Boston's early days and his name appears frequently in the "Minutes of the Meetings of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston ;" but, as in the case of Thaddeus, there is nothing said as to his place of birth or his antecedents. Nor is there anything on record to indicate his relationship to Thaddeus MacCarty. He was a provision dealer and contractor at Boston in 1687, and in 1693 he is on record as the purchaser of several parcels of land in that town and at Roxbury. As "Florence Mackarta" his name appears in the Town Books of March 30, 1693, when, with Samuel Bill and Henry Brightman, he made application to the Selectmen "desiring leav to build a Slaughter hous on Peck's Wharfe." 65 In the same year he was elected "Town Constable," and again, at "a meeting of the Freeholders and Inhabitants of Boston," held on March 22, 1697, "Mr. Flor Maccarty was chosen Constable for ye year ensuing." 66
As in the case of Thaddeus, his name was recorded in several curious ways in the Boston tax lists, and some examples of these entries are: "Florence Charty,"
[page 232]taxed in 1687 ; "fflorance Mecarte" taxed in 1688; "Florence Mac Karty," in 1691, and "Florence Mecharte's Est" (estate) was taxed at Salem in the year 1700. 67 A "List of the Names of all the Males above 16 years of Age Taken in Major Townsend's Camp, August 1698, 68 as includes the name, "Florence Micarta" and while this would indicate that he followed the example of Thaddeus by joining the Massachusetts Military Company, his name does not appear in its musterrolls. As "Florence Mecarta his name is recorded in a "Petition of Boston Inhabitants in 1696 that the law relating to building with brick be repealed," 69 and on July 27, 1702, he acted as "Surety for Anthony Blount to be admitted as an Inhabitant," 70 and on July 9, 1703, he and John Bennet executed a bond as sureties for Benjamin Gallop, "guardian to the children of Nathaniel Alden of Boston, deceased." 71
About 1700 he was the possessor of a large tract of land which he turned into a stock farm, and according to a description of the tract, "it contained sixty acres and lay between Hawthorne Street and Walnut Avenue on both sides of Washington Street, extending from Cedar on the north to Marcella on the south." 72 Prior to 1710, he lived in Brattle Square, Boston, but in that year he purchased the "Alcock Mansion" at what is now said to be the corner of Ellis and Hawthorne Streets, where he lived until his death. He also owned the land which is now the southwest corner of State and Congress Streets, and in 1712 it is referred to as "Maccarty's Corner." Evidently, there was another "Maccarty's
[page 233]Corner" in Boston, as appears from an order issued by the Selectmen at a meeting held on May 3, 1708, directing that "the Streets, Lanes and Alleys of this Town as they are bounded and named be accordingly recorded in the Towns Booke, wch are as followeth." Then follows a list of "the Streets, Lanes and Alleys," among which were several "Corners," one of which was "Maccartyes Corner in lying Street." Half Square Court, Boston, is described in the year 1732 as "from Maccarty's Corner turning into Pudding Lane", 73 (about what has since been the City Exchange), and in 1743 "Maccarty's Corner" was referred to as "the corner of King Street and Leverett's Lane." His homestead and gardens for more than a hundred years were known as "the Maccarty farm," and until recent years, were so referred to in deeds and conveyances concerning lots and holdings in that part of the City of Boston. "The Maccarty farm" was divided into building lots and sold in the year 1830. 74
In 1691 it is evident that one Joseph Newell executed a mortgage to Florence MacCarty on some property in Roxbury. In the "Acts and Resolves of the Province of Massachusetts Bay" of the year 1715 the following petition is entered: "Richard Coomes and Hebshibah, his wife, prayed the equity of Redemption of an Estate in Roxbury mortgaged in the year 1691 to Florence MacCarty, late of Boston, Butcher, by their Father, Joseph Newell, Deceased." The petition was heard at a session of the Council in Boston in June, 1715 when it was voted "that the Petrs ought to have the Equity of Re-
[page 234]demption inasmuch as the Mortgage made to Florence Maccarty by Joseph Newell Father of the Petitioners (Richard Coomes' wife) was not recorded until April 7, 1714. And that they be empowered to file a Bill for their Rights of Equity of Redemption in the next Court of Law proper to hear the same." On December 16, 1715, the petition was decided in their favor by the Court in Boston. 75
Besides his large holdings in Boston and Roxbury, he also owned lands and houses at Salem. In the Registry of Deeds for Essex County at Salem there is a record of a purchase by "Florence Maccarty of Boston, Slaughterer," of a house and lot at Salem from one John Cromwell on March 17, 1698, for 120 pounds. 76 On November 28, 1701, he purchasers a house at Salem from Hannah Cromwell, and on April 7, 1707, Elizur Keysor of Salem conveyed to Florence MacCarty a house, barn and land at that place. 77 In the "Salem Commoners' Records" of the year 1702 he is named "Florence Mccarty," and "Flowrence Maccarter" is recorded as "the owner of Crumel's houses" in 1713. As Florence of Boston died in the year 1712, the "Flowrence Maccarter" here referred to must have been his son.
As Florence "Maccartie" he is mentioned by the New England historian, Drake, among eleven prominent persons in Boston who met in that town on June 15, 1686, for the purpose of organizing "the first Society for Episcopal worship in New England." Savage also mentions him in his "Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England" He gives 1686 as the earliest period when his name was recorded among the inhabitants of the town and states that he was "one
[page 235]of the founders of the first Society for Episcopal worship in New England," but it is clear that he was a resident of the town for many years before that time, and it seems proper to assume that; he was there as early as Thaddeus, who is first mentioned in the records of the year 1664. One historical writer says that Florence was "a son of Thaddeus," but as he offers no authority for that statement, and as there is no record of any son of Thaddeus named Florence, I am constrained to disregard it, and my own opinion is that they were brothers and in all probability they came together to this country from Ireland.
Florence MacCarty was married three times. By his first wife, Elizabeth, he had three children whose births are recorded in the Town Books 78 as follows:
Elizabeth, daughter of Florence and Elizabeth Maccarty, December 25, 1686
Thomas, son of Florence and Eliza Maccarty, February 5, 1688
William, son of Florence and Eliza Maccarty, February 3, 1689
The death of Elizabeth, wife of Florence, is recorded under date of July 6, 1696, and on August 24, 1697, he married Sarah Nework, by whom he had three daughters, the record of whose births thus appears in the Town Books: 79
Sarah, daughter of Florence and Sarah MacKarty, May 13, 1698
Esther, daughter of Florence Mackartey and Sarah, his wife, July 21, 1701
Margaret, daughter of Florence Mackartey and Sarah, his wife, March 29, 1702
On January 8, 1706, he married Christian Dobbins by whom he had two sons, Florence and William. The
[page 236]births of several of his children are entered in the vital records of Dorchester as indicating that he lived for some time in that town. He died at Roxbury on June 13, 1712, and on May 31, 1714, letters of administration to his estate were granted to his widow, Christian MacCarty, and his son William, and the record shows that the estate which was appraised at 2922 pounds 10s. 8d. as "divided and set off," one-third to the widow and twothirds among the children, Elizabeth, Mary, Sarah, Esther and William. This William MacCarty was a shipmaster and merchant at Boston and was part owner of several fine vessels trading with the West Indies.
The first William MacCarty, son of Florence and Elizabeth, is mentioned several times in the Minutes of the Selectmen of the town of Boston between 1735 and 1750, as showing that he continued the business established by his father. Under "New Inhabitants admitted by ye Sel'men," William Maccarty joined Luke Verdey and Thomas Phillips as "suretyes" on August 28, 1716, 80 and on March 15, 1725, he was chosen one of six constables for the town of Boston. 81 "Mr. William Maccarty, Victualler" -petitioned the Selectmen on March 18, 1735 "for Liberty to sell his meat in the Market Place" and was "Advised to Erect a Stall upon the Platform near the Market Place laid there last Summer for that purpose, in order to Sell his Meat therein." 82 And that it is evident there was some opposition to his securing this privilege is clear from an entry in the Town Books of April 9, 1735. At a meeting of the Selectmen on that date "Mr. Savell is Directed to make a strict Inquiry in order to find out the Person or Persons who overthrew a Frame Erected by Mr. William Mac-
[page 237]carty on the Platform near the Market on Dock Square the last night." On May 25, 1735 at a meeting of the citizens and freeholders in Faneuil Hall, his name is listed for a subscription of 15 pounds among a number of inhabitants of the town who subscribed for a fund "to erect a Workhouse wherein to Employ Idle and Indigent belonging to the Town," and five years later he is seen in a controversy with the Selectmen over a proposition to make certain changes in his lot and residence in Half Square Court. The inscription on his tombstone in Copp's Hill burial-ground at Boston says he died on January 27, 1756, and "Letters of Administration to the estate of William Maccarty, late of Boston, Victualler," we're granted on December 16, 1757, and his son, "Thomas Maccarty, Merchant," was appointed Administrator by Governor Thomas Hutchinson.
The fugitive references herein quoted from the Town Books of Boston and other early records vindicate clearly that the MacCartys were among the active and enterprising business men of the town and there can be no doubt that if a more extensive search were made in the old records, data could be secured which would form the basis of a highly interesting story of the careers of the American descendants of these "Exiles from Erin." There was every reason for according them a place in Massachusetts history, yet the historians are peculiarly silent. In the voluminous work of the New England historians, Dr. William Richard Cutter and William Frederick Adams, 83 entitled "Genealogical and Personal Memoirs relating to the Families of the State of Massachusetts," and in a similar work by the same authors dealing with Middlesex County, there is absolutely no mention of the MacCartys, as if such a family never
[page 238]resided in the State! Besides the descendants of Thaddeus, Florence and Thomas, it is certain also there were other families of the name in Boston and vicinity during the first half of the eighteenth century, but the records do not disclose what their relationship to these three may have been. This is shown by the entries in the Parish Registers of marriages of persons of the name, and as none of these are recorded among the births as children of either Thaddeus, Florence or Thomas MacCarty, or their sons, it is a fair assumption that they were immigrants from Ireland or possibly were the children of immigrants whose names are not on record. Some instances of these are the following marriages, all recorded in the Boston Town Books. 84
|Mary Maccarty and Matthew Hole||December 23, 1708|
|Sarah Maccarty and Thomas Foster||January 5, 1712|
|Mary Maccarty and Jeremiah Philbrick||December 25, 1712|
|Mary Maccarty and Thomas Marshall||March 23, 1718|
|Mary Maccarty and Ebenezer Bridge||March 19, 1729|
|Anne Maccarty and edward Oliver||December 19, 1734|
|Eleanor McCarty and John Popeland||December 5, 1735|
|Elizabeth Maccarty and William Bennet||July 6, 1736|
|Margaret McCarty and John Ruth||December 2, 1736|
|Jeremiah Mccarty and Elizabeth Brooks||January 7, 1738|
|Mary Maccarty and Edward Fox||February 6, 1738|
|Mary Carte and Caleb Hacker||April 27, 1738|
|Elisabeth McCarty and James Pritchett||April 7, 1739|
|Michael MCCarty and Mary Peninton||May 21, 1739|
|Elizabeth McCarty and John Hutchinson||April 28, 1740|
|Katharine Mccarty and Richard Barry||June 24, 1740|
|Timothy McCarty and Mercy Swain||December 1, 1740|
|Eliza McCarthey and Patrick Corkerry||March 24, 1741|
|Margaret Maccarty and James Kenney||December 27, 1743|
|Margaret Maccarty and Thomas Marshall||March 6, 1746|
|Mary Maccarty and Thomas Cahill||June 9, 1746|
|James McCarty and Elisabeth Montgomery||December 25, 1749|
|Elizabeth Maccarty and Joseph Dunnel||August 28, 1756|
[page 239]various MacCartys above listed, and as far as I can find, there is no mention of them or their parents in any other New England records or in the town or county histories. So that, this list in itself, will serve as an indication of the incompleteness of this account of the various American families of the name.
[page 240]CHAPTER IX
THE MAC CARTYS OF MASSACHUSETTS (continued)
The descendants of the pioneer MacCartys in New England-The McCarthys of Salem and other Massachusetts towns-McCarthys as soldiers in the Colonial wars-Captain Daniel McCarthy, one of the charter members of the Marine Society of Boston-Daniel McCarthy, merchant and Revolutionary patriot of Roxbury-McCarthys recorded as arriving from Ireland before the Revolution-A large number of people of the name appear in Massachusetts records.There are many other references in New England town records to people of this name at later periods than the foregoing, although it is clear that all of them could not have been descended from either of the Boston pioneers, the given names of these people being in themselves an indication that they were not of this immediate family. Most of the other McCarthys were immigrants from Ireland who came to New England at various times during the eighteenth century. While the descendants of the Boston pioneers were numerous, they scattered all over the country and in some instances the male line is seen to have died out. For instance, although Rev. Thaddeus MacCarty of Worcester was the father of fifteen children, the town historian shows that there lived of his posterity in the New England States in 1862 only one grandchild, two great grandchildren and three great-great-grandchildren of the name. According to the genealogical records, numerous daughters of the MacCartys became the wives of descendants of some of the oldest settlers in New England and many prominent families of to-day can claim the distinction
[page 241]of having the "blue blood" of the ancient Irish family of MacCarthy coursing through their veins.
The McCarthys were pretty well scattered through New England. Apparently, the first of the name was William, who is recorded among "persons who owned lands at Salem prior to 1661," 1 and no doubt the "William Carty" who was summoned as a juror at Salem in 1672 was the same man. There is no further reference to him, nor any indication that he left descendants, although one "John Mackartee" seems to have been at Salem in 1700, since his name so appears in the tax lists of the town for that year. And, as will be noted from the references to Newport, Rhode Island, records 2 "John MackCartey of Salem" took out letters of administration to the estate of his son, Andrew, who died at Newport in the year 1703 or 1704. Although no further information as to these people seems to be now obtainable beyond the bare references to them in the public records, it is believed that both were sea-faring men.
That there was a large family of the name at Salem appears from entries in the parish registers quoted in the "Historical Collections of the Essex Institute," 3 of which the following are verbatim copies: "John Mecarter or Mecartey and Rebecka Meacham were maryed the 27th. of January, 1674; theire son John borne the 13th. January, 1675; daughter Rebecka borne 4th. 12 mo. 1677; son Jeremiah borne 9th. 7th. mo. 1679; Peter borne 1st. 9th. mo. 1681; Andrew borne 6th. June, 1684; James born 17th. 9th. mo. 1686; Isaac born 3rd. June, 1689; Rebecka born the second daughter 6th. February, 1690." In the same records from which these names are taken may be seen references to William
[page 242]Obrien, Bryant O'Dougherty and "Francis Roache, a native of Ireland," who were residents of Salem between 1669 and 1683. "John, Jeremiah, Peter, Andrew and James Makarta, sons of Rebecca Makarta," were baptized in the First Church at Salem on November 16, 1687, and "Isack, son of John Macarta," was baptized in the same church on September 21, 1689. 4
"John McCartey, a dyer," came from Warren, Rhode Island, to Salem in 1699 and settled there, and "John Mccarty," who probably was a son of John and Rebecca Mecartey, above mentioned, is referred to in Salem records of 1702 as "a property owner" in that town. 5 William Maccarty with other inhabitants of Salem signed a petition on June 29, 1713, requesting "that a meeting of the proprietors be summoned." 6 Mary Maccarty became the wife of Ebenezer Fisher at Dedham, Mass., on June 2, 1718, 7 and Ruth Maccarty and John Smith were married at Wrentham, Mass., on May 18, 1721, 8 indicating that there were families of the name at these places, although neither the local historians nor the public records of these towns make any mention of them. The inventory of the estate of "Thomas McCordy, late of Dedham, deceased, taken 19th. April, 1758," appears in the Suffolk County court files and it is probable that this "McCordy" was a McCarthy. Another of the name, James, lived at Dedham, since the probate records show that letters of administration for the estate of "James McCordy, late of Dedham," were granted to "Thomas Kilpatrick of St. George in the County of York, Gent'n," on April 14, 1758.
[page 243]From the "Vital Records of Newbury, Mass.," among marriages columnized in Queen Anne's Episcopal chapel at that place, the following entry is taken: "William McCarthy of Kingsale, Ireland, mariner, and Margaret Pulsafer of Boston, married June 25, 1729." No McCarthys appear in the birth or death records of the town of Newbury, and as the local historian fails to make any mention of people of the name, there is nothing to indicate whether William and Margaret McCarthy made the place their home, or what their history may have been. "Robert Mackerdey or McCarthy" was "admitted to the Church (at Hanover, Mass.), on July 6, 1728," and "James McCarty and Elizabeth Smith, both of Hanover," were married on August 9, 1732. 9 "Dan'll MacKarty, Constable, 28s. 2d.", is one of the items of indebtedness mentioned in the inventory of the estate of John Trask of Salem when his will, dated November 11, 1729, was filed in the Essex County probate court on May 20, 1730 10 "James McCarty's estate" was taxed at Charlestown in the year 1730 and again in 1734, 11 and his son, John Maccarty, was taxed at that place in 1730 and under the name of "John Maccordy" in 1737. Another John McCarty appears in the Charlestown tax lists between 1770 and 1773. It is quite possible that these McCartys were descendants of the Boston pioneers, since the name of William G. McCarthy, son of Thaddeus (3rd) is also entered in the Charlestown tax lists. He settled at that place after his marriage to Hannah Soley at Billerica, Mass., on December 28, 1785.
[page 244]Thomas McCarty appears in the Charlestown records of the year 1740 as "a stranger," and evidently he died in that year, for on December 1, 1740, the Selectmen ordered "that the Towne pay the expenses of his funeral." 12 There also seems to have been a family of the name at Leicester, Mass. In the "Journal of Revd. Daniel Shute," 13 chaplain in the expedition to Canada in the French-English war, he relates an account of his journey and states that, on his arrival at Leicester on October 17, 1758, he "took some refreshment at Mr. McCarty's." In the marriage register of Gloucester, Mass., 14 there is an entry of the marriage of "Esther Maccarty, daughter of Thomas Maccarty," to Epes Sargent of Salem, son of William Sargent, an immigrant to the Cape Cod Peninsula prior to 1678. No date is mentioned, but as the date of her death is given as July 1, 1743, we may assume that Thomas Maccarty was a very early settler in this ancient New England fishing village. The Boston Evening Post of December 13, 1762, in announcing the death of Epes Sargent at Salem at the age of 72, said he had been "for many years a noted merchant of that town," and one of the local historians says that "the family took high rank in mercantile and literary life from the first." 15
A number of soldiers of the name served in the Massachusetts regiments engaged in the French and Indian wars, among them Richard Macarty, Thomas McCarthy, John McCarty, John McCarthy, Denis Maccarty, Dennis McCarthy, Alexander McCarty and
[page 245]Florence McCarthy. The ubiquitous Irishman turns up frequently in references to the Colonial wars, so it is not surprising to find McCarthys fighting on both sides in the French-English war. In the Pennsylvania Gazette of May 12, 1748, and in the Boston Evening Post of May 23 of the same year there is an account of a fight between a Boston vessel and a French privateer commanded by a Captain Maccarty. This account reads: "Sunday last arrived here (Philadelphia) the Snow, Molly and Sally, Captain Perry, from Barbadoes. In the Passage she met with, engaged and took the ship Aurora, Captain Maccarty, from Mississippi to Cape Francois, which vessel is also safe arrived in this Port. The Engagement lasted about an Hour and a Quarter, in which time Captain Maccarty had one man killed and several wounded. Unluckily for the captors, Captain Maccarty, having touched at the Havannah, put some Chests of Money he had on board into a Frigate of 36 Guns, likewise bound for the Cape." No mention is made as to what became of Captain Maccarty and his crew of forty men, but in all probability they were released, since the war between France and England was terminated in July, 1748.
The earliest appearance of the above named Richard Mccarty is his signature to a receipt, which I found in the Massachusetts Archives, dated Boston, August 27, 1740, "given by said Mccarty for 5 pounds received of Capt Steuart in full for bounty," 16 but as to where or how long he served is not stated in the record. Thomas McCarthy appears in a list of Massachusetts soldiers dated March 8, 1747, endorsed "Mr. Hubbard's account of money paid prisoner from Canada," 17 and in a "List
[page 246]of the prisoners that came in the Flag of Truce from Quebec," published in the Boston Weekly Evening-Post of August 24, 1747, the name of Thomas McCarthy is listed among 171 men belonging to a New England regiment which took part in the siege of Louisburg, Cape Breton, in 1745, They were taken captive by the French and carried into Quebec as prisoners of war, and were brought back to Boston in exchange for French prisoners, arriving at Boston on August 16, 1747. 18
The two Johns were in a Lancaster company and their names appear among the men mustered in at that place for the French-English war; and, since the names are listed in the roll at the same time, it is assumed they were different men. They served in the expedition to Nova Scotia in 1755 and at Lake George three years later, and among others in the Lancaster company were soldiers named Larkin, Dunn, McFadden, McBride, Geary, Powers, McLong, Butler, Flynn, Redmond, and Malone, as well as soldier named Henderson, Russell and Spear, all recorded as "born in Ireland." 19 That John McCarthy reenlisted is clear from the fact that his name is entered as a "private in Captain Aaron Willard's company" in 1759, with the date of enlistment as April 2nd and the period of his service up to November 30th of the same year, serving "at the Westward." His name again appears in a muster-roll of the company dated "Boston, February 28, 1760," 20 and it is evident that he continued to reside at Lancaster after the war, since the town books under date of February 21, 1761,
[page 247]contain an entry reading: "John McCarthy of Lancaster entered his Intentions of Marriage with Wid'w margaret macfarland of said Lancaster," and in a "List of Marriages consummated by Revd. Timo Harrington" appears a record of the marriage of "John McCarthy and Margaret McFarling, both of Lancaster," on March 16, 1761.
Denis Maccarty appears on a descriptive list of Major James House's company of Colonel Joseph Dwight's regiment raised "for intended expedition against Crown Point under John Winslow, Commander-in-Chief." On the muster-roll his age is given as 26 ; birthplace, Ireland ; residence, Warren (Mass.) ; occupation, labourer; rank, private. The company was returned as mustered in at Boston on May 6, 1756, and the record gives us the interesting information that "said Maccarty furnished his own blanket." 21 The same name, and probably the same man, is on a list dated July 22, 1756, of "soldiers enlisted or impressed out of the 2nd. Bristol County regiment for the expedition against Crown Point as returned by Col Thomas Gilbert." Denis was "reported as belonging to Rehoboth" (Mass.) 22 and on April 4, 1758, we find him sworn in on a muster-roll at Boston in Captain William Arbuthnot's company after service at Fort William Henry. The other Dennis McCarthy also enlisted in Captain Arbuthnot's company, and his name also appears in the roll of Captain Joel Bradford's company on February 18, 1757. He was ranked as "Corporal" and his residence was given as Taunton. Fort William Henry was invested on August 3rd and capitulated on August 9th, 1757, and Dennis McCarthy was "reported killed, August 6th," probably in action.
[page 248]Denis Maccarty is not mentioned in the histories of the towns of Warren and Rehoboth, and the only mention of Dennis McCarthy in the history of the town of Taunton is where his name is included among the Colonial soldiers who enlisted from that town. 23 However, in the town records of Rehoboth there is an entry of the marriage of "Dennis Mackmarty of Newport and Susanna Perry of Rehoboth" at Providence, R. I., on January 14, 1719. In all likelihood "Mackmarty" was meant for "McCarthy." The town of Rehoboth is on the Providence River opposite Providence, and that part of the town known as Seekonk is noted as the place where Roger Williams made his settlement in the year 1636. Among the births at Rehoboth were "Susanna McCartye" on Jive 10, 1740 ; "Rebeccah McCartye" on January 14, 1742, and "Raphael McCartye" on March 7, 1743, all recorded as the children of "Charles and Raphael McCartye." "Susannah McCarty of Rehoboth and William Love of Coventry, R. I.," and "Rebecca McCarty of Rehoboth and William Bishop of Woodstock" declared their "intentions" (of marriage) on November 5, 1761, and January 14, 1770, respectively, 24 and the McCarty name appears on the vital records of the town as late as 1830.
Alexander McCarty appears in a muster-roll dated Boston, February 3, 1761, of a company under the command of Captain Thomas Cowdin ; rank, private, residence, Freetown (Massachusetts), and that he was on active service is shown by this entry on the roll: "Reported 110 miles travel allowance to go home." 25
[page 249]"Florence McCarty of Boston" served in Captain John Johnson's company of Colonel Winslow's regiment in 1754 "for the defense of the Eastern frontiers." The muster-roll is dated Boston, November 8, 1754, but he is shown as entering the service on June 12th. of that year and is listed on the roll as a "centinel." In January, 1760, he served in Captain Samuel Peck's company, where he is listed as a sergeant, serving until November 20th, and in the remarks on the roll opposite his name appear: "endorsed company up St. Lawrence River," which is a clear indication that he was in the expedition organized for the capture of Quebec, although the City capitulated in 1759. Another of the name, Florence McCarthy, appears on a muster-roll dated Boston, November, 1758, of officers and men serving on board the Massachusetts ship, King George, commanded by Captain Benjamin Hallowell, Jr. He is listed as a seaman, and entered the service on March 24th. (probably 1758). He is recorded as a resident of Boston. 26
In the vital records of the town of Medford 27 there is an entry taken from the register of the Fist Parish Unitarian Church at that place, of the baptism of "Eleonor Macordy, daughter of one Macordy, Irish," under date of March 23, 1729, and there can be no doubt that this man's proper name was McCarthy. Another entry in the same records says that "John McCordy and his wife, Mary," came to Medford from Woburn "about May 16, 1755," and although they seem to have settled down as permanent residents, being recorded as "tenants of William Falkner," they were "warned out" by the selectmen on December 1, 1755 28 Evidently, this place had some attractions for the McCarthys. John
[page 250]McCarthy came to Medford from Boston on December 3, 1760, 29 and Daniel McCarthy, Jr., arrived in town from Concord on "about July 1, 1762," and was "warned out" January 1, 1763. 30 No further information as to these people seems to be now obtainable and as they are not mentioned in the town history of Medford, it is probable that they did not long remain in the place.
The general lack of details in the Colonial records renders it a difficult matter to differentiate between persons of the same name when the names appear in the early records of the same locality. For example, in the Town Books of Boston there is an entry covering a declaration of "Intentions of Marriage" by Daniel McCarty and Nelly Finnicey on August 5, 1742, and under date of January 9, 1743, the marriage of Daniel McCarty and Lucretia Darby appears ; while, the vital records of the town of Medford show that Daniel McCarthy and Mary Floyd were married at that place on March 23, 1746, 31 and in the parish register of the local church his name is entered "Captain Daniel McCarthy." There is no other reference to the first two Daniels, but to the last-mentioned two daughters were born at Medford, Mary McCarthy on July 21, 1747, and Margaret McCarthy on July 11, 1749. Both children died in infancy and their gravestones may be seen in the Salem Street cemetery at Medford. Captain McCarthy, in all probability, was master of a New England merchant vessel trading with the West Indies, since such an officer is mentioned in the newspapers of the time. For instance, among the masters of vessels registered at the Boston Custom House as having "Cleared for Departure for West Indies," as
[page 251]reported in the Weekly News-Letter of March 10, 1748, as well in the Evening Post of May 14, was "Captain McCarthy." It is safe to say that all three Daniels above mentioned were different persons, and that they were natives of Ireland, since there is no entry of the birth of any Daniel McCarthy in Massachusetts records.
It is quite evident that Captain McCarthy was an active and prominent man in his chosen business, since his name appears as one of the charter members of the Marine Society of Boston incorporated at a session of the Massachusetts Court on January 25, 1754. An entry in the Council records of December 17, 1755, indicates that he was master of a vessel called the Rebecca. In that month Thomas Boylston, merchant of Boston, petitioned the Massachusetts Court "for a Licence to send in the Brig'tne Rebecca, Daniel Maccarty, Master, to the Bay of Honduras, one hundred Barrels of Provisions with the other part of the Cargo, he giving Bond as usual." At its session on December 18, the Council "empowered the Commissioner of Import or his Deputy to take Bond of One Thousand Pounds Sterling of the Petr for Sureties for landing or disposing of the same at the Bay aforesaid ; and that the Master or Chief Officer of the said Vessel on his Return make Oath that said Provisions were landed or disposed of as aforesaid, and on taking said Oath his Bond be cancelled."
The marital troubles of Daniel McCarthy were aired in the Massachusetts General Court on the 14th of June, 1757. One of the Acts of the Court passed on that date was entitled: "An Act for dissolving the Marriage of Daniel McCarthy with Mary McCarthy." On the hearing of a petition for the annullment of his marriage, on the ground of his wife's unfaithfulness, the record shows that the prayer was granted by "a Decree of His
[page 252]Majesty's Council made and passed on Friday the tenth day of June 1757." 32 The decree permitted him to marry again, and in all probability this was the same Daniel McCarthy who married Mary Floyd at Medford on March 23, 1746, and whose second marriage to Anne Savage at the Brattle Street church, Boston, appears under date of February 1, 1759. In this record he is described as of Bedford, Mass., occupation, mariner.
The Town Books of Boston mention several other people of the name. Jeremiah and Callahan Maccarty were appointed "Ticket Porters" by the Selectmen and gave "Security according to Law for their good Behaviour in said Office," on April 21, 1742, and September 7, 1743, respectively 33 At a town meeting in Faneuil Hall on March 11, 1750, William MacCarty was appointed by the same body "one of the Clerks of the Market," and on March 13, 1753, he was chosen "Constable for the year ensuing." There is also an entry in the Selectmen's records showing that Thomas Maccarty was appointed a "pay Constable for the year ensuing" on March 12, 1753. 34 "Elect" Maccarty, William O'Neil and William Byrne, members of the crew of the privateer, Defiance, of Newport, R. I., are so mentioned in the Boston Town Books of the year 1756. In a list of "property owners at Boston who suffered losses in the great fire on March 20, 1760," Thomas McCarthy is mentioned as having "sustained a loss of 139 pounds 6s. 8d.
[page 253]to real estate," 35 and on February 20, 1767, Thomas Maccarty was one of a large number of the freeholders and inhabitants who petitioned "the Gentlemen Selectmen of the Town of Boston & her Majesty's Justices of the Peace," praying "that a very Commodious Street may be laid out" to take the place of "Paddy's Alley" which was "burnt out during the great fire" in that town on the 3rd. of February, 1767.
Among the Irish immigrants recorded as arriving at Boston I find Michael McCarty in the year 1765 and Austin and Thomas McCarty and Daniel Carty, all of whom arrived in "the Brig Wilmott from Cork, Ireland," on November 15, 1766, 36 as well as William McCarty, Sallie McCarthy and Terence and Edward McCarty in "the Ann and Margaret from Ireland" on October 14, 1767. 37 In the passenger list of "the sch Sally from N. Providence, Abner Holmes, Master," which arrived at Boston in August, 1765, "Mr. McCarty, a Trader," was listed, and another entry in the Town Books also recorded the arrival at Boston on August 28, 1768, of "Mr. McCarty, a Trader," in "the Sloop, Dolphin, from Halifax." 38 Still another entry in the records says that "Thomas McCarty, a servant indentured to Messrs. Creed & Collis, merchants of Boston," arrived in the schooner, Speedwell, from St. Croix on November 15 1766. In the same record where these
[page 254]entries appear there is an item under "Port Arrivals -Emigrants," with the date August 15, 1768, of the arrival of "William McCartey, a Marriner," and although he arrived on board "the Sloop, Sally, from Grenada," the presumption is that he came from Ireland. One of the passengers on "the Snow, Catherine, from Glasgow," which arrived in Boston on August 29, 1768, was Sally McCarty who "went from Boston." In the Town Books under date of November 21, 1768, there is also a list of "fishermen from Newfoundland" who came to Boston in the schooner, Hampton, and among the names listed are Edward and Terence McCarthy.
In the Boston Evening Post of July 5, 1762, among masters of vessels registered at the Custom House as "Cleared Out," there is an entry showing that a "Captain McCarthy" had sailed "for Amsterdam" during the previous week, and the issue of that paper of May 23, 1763, announced the arrival at Boston of "Captain McCarthy in a ship from Holland, but last from Ireland." There is no further mention of him in the newspapers about this time, but when we consult "The Minutes of the Meetings of the Selectmen of Boston," we find that "Captain Daniel McCarthy, Master of the ship, Sally, from Kingsale in Ireland," appeared before the Selectmen on May 21, 1763, and "upon Examination declared he left said place the 23rd. March and this Day arrived at Nastasket Road." 39 Information had reached the Selectmen that the Sally "had sickness on board" and Captain McCarthy was called on to report upon the condition of his passengers. He is also mentioned in the New York newspapers as commander of a merchant man and in the Gazette and Weekly Mercury
[page 255]of August 18, 1766, there is an account of "Captain McCarthy who, in a large ship belonging to the port of Boston, arrived at Barbadoes." I have no doubt that all of these items referred to the same identical person.
In the Boston Evening Post of February 16, 1766, there is an advertisement bearing the caption:
"IMPORTED BY DANIEL McCARTHY and to be sold at his house in Union Street between the Sign of the Cornfields and the Mill Bridge."
Then follows a detailed description of the goods for sale, which included silks, satins, broglios, laces, Persian cloths, ribbons, trimmings, fans, shoes, gloves, muslins, cambrics, lawns, gauzes, calicoes, Irish linens and checks, thread, worsted, hose, china, glass and delph ware, and kitchen utensils in great variety. It was one of the longest advertisements in the paper and was repeated in every issue down to the 5th. of May, 1766. I am unable to find any reference to Daniel McCarthy in Boston records or in the newspapers of the time to indicate that he was engaged in business as a merchant, but, from the fact that the goods were to be sold "at his house," and not at his shop as merchants usually announced in their advertisements, it is probable that he was the mariner before referred to and that he brought the merchandise from abroad to be sold to Boston merchants. That he was an Irishman there can be no doubt, since there is no entry in the vital records prior to this time of the birth of any person named Daniel McCarthy.
An entry in the minutes of a meeting of the Selectmen on December 21, 1768, says: "Mr. Savage, one of the Town Collectors, presents Captain (Daniel) McCarthy for one of his Bondsmen for the faithful discharge of his
[page 256]Trust," 40 and this is followed by an entry reading: "Approved, Captain McCarthy, as Bondsman for Abraham Savage." Under date of November 20, 1771, he is thus referred to in the Town Books: "Daniel Maccarty, Mariner, and Archibald McNeil were accepted by the Selectmen as Bondsmen for Abraham Savage, Collector of Taxes," 41 which fact indicates that he was a substantial citizen. In his will he is described as "of Boston in the County of Suffolk, in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, Mariner." The instrument is dated October 8, 1772, and under its provisions he bequeathed his "whole Estate, Real and Personal," to his wife, Anna, "to be employed for her Support and for the Maintenance, Support and Education of my Children in such a manner as in her discretion shall seem meet." and upon her death or marriage, he directed that his estate be divided into three shares, one of which was to go to his son, Daniel, and one each to his daughters, Anna and Elizabeth. 42
Among the "Resolves of the General Assembly of the State of Massachusetts" in the State Archives at Boston, I have found an interesting document concerning one Daniel McCarthy of Roxbury and his kinsman, Calahan McCarthy. It is a petition dated April 14, 1779, and reads as follows: "To the Hn'ble Council & House of Representatives of the State of Massachusetts Bay. The Petition of Daniel McCarty humbly Showeth that Calahan McCarty, a Native of Ireland and never an Inhabitant of America, a near Relation of yr Petitioner was prevailed on by some of the Inhabitants of Antigua to go on Board the Privately lately taken by the Hazard, & is now a Prisoner on Board ye Guardship in
[page 257]the Harbour of Boston. That your Petitioner urged by Humanity towards ye Young Man humbly requests Leave from your Honours to take the Prisoner to yr Petitioners House in Roxbury, at which place your Petitioner will come under any Bonds to keep him under such Restrictions as your Honours may order, and see him forthcoming whenever your Honours shall see fit to order him to be exchanged, & as in Duty bound shall ever pray.
Immediately under the entry of the Petition appears the following "Resolve" passed by the General Assembly on April 16, 1779: "On the Petition of Daniel McCarthy praying that Calahan McCarthy a Prisoner on board the Guard-Ship may be admitted to come on Shore to the House of the Petitioner. Resolved that the prayer of the Petition be granted and that the Commissary of Prisoners be & hereby is directed to permit the said Calahan McCarthy to come on shore on his Parole that he will not do or say anything prejudicial to this or any of the United States of America, and provided that the Petitioner Daniel McCarthy gives Bonds of One Thousand pounds with two Sureties of Five hundred pounds each to the Treasurer of this State that the said Calahan McCarthy shall not depart the House & limits of the Farm of the Petitioner at Roxbury except to attend Public Worship on Sabbath Days and will see him forthcoming when called for to be exchanged."
The document bears the signatures of John Avery, Deputy, and John Pickering, Speaker, and of sixteen members of the Council, but there is no further mention in the record of Calahan McCarthy.
[page 258]There were two Revolutionary soldiers named Daniel McCarthy credited to the town of Roxbury, both recorded in the Massachusetts muster-rolls. "Daniel McCarthy, Senior, born in Ireland," enlisted at Roxbury and his name appears in the Continental army pay accounts showing service from January 1, 1777, to September 19, 1777, in Captain Job Sumner's company of Colonel John Greaton's Massachusetts regiment. An entry concerning him in the pay accounts says, that he was "reported killed September... , 1777," and as the last day of his service, September 19, 1777, was the date of the battle of Saratoga, there is no doubt that it was in that memorable fight that the Irish soldier gave up his life. Another Daniel McCarthy, also of Roxbury and also recorded as "born in Ireland," appears in a "return of men raised to serve in the Continental army," dated Boston, January 19, 1777. He also served in Captain Sumner's company and was "engaged for the Town of Roxbury" for three years and was mustered out December 31, 1779. These two probably were father and son. Evidently, the Daniels of this family were in no way scarce in that vicinity, since there were two others of the name soldiers of the Revolution. "Daniel McCarty, residence Charlestown," served in Colonel Bond's Massachusetts regiment in 1775, and "Daniel McCarty of Boston" served on the frigate, Hague, under Captain John Manley in 1783.
The Daniel McCarthy who petitioned the General Assembly could not have been either of the Daniels of Roxbury who served in the Revolutionary army, since the petition is dated April 14, 1779, and the document clearly indicates that the petitioner then lived on his farm at Roxbury, while one of the Revolutionary soldiers was killed in 1777 and the other continued to serve
[page 259]until December 31, 1779. There is no indication in the records of the General Assembly that the conditions required for the release of Calahan McCarthy were complied with; yet, since Daniel McCarthy was asked to give security in so large a sum as one thousand pounds, he must have been regarded as a man of considerable means. An "Honor Roll of Massachusetts Patriots Theretofore Unknown, being a list of Men and Women who loaned money to the Federal Government, 1777-1779," published in the year 1899 by the Massachusetts Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, contains the name of Daniel McCarthy, and I have no doubt that this was the Daniel who interested himself in the welfare of his kinsman, Calahan McCarthy.
That he continued to reside at Roxbury is indicated by the fact that "the estate of Daniel McCarty" was taxed at that place in the year 1782, and at the session of the General Court of Massachusetts held in January, 1791, Daniel McCarthy was one of fifteen petitioners , praying compensation may be made them for lands lost in running the line between this Commonwealth and the State of New York." The basis of the petition was, that in the year 1771 a tract of 1980 acres "belonging to a grant of land made to the proprietors of Groton" fell within the State of New York, and the petitioners claimed that 980 acres of this grant were sold to them by the proprietors of Groton. On January 24, 1792, the Court granted the petitioners a quid pro quo by directing "that the Committee on the subject of unappropriated land in the County of Lincoln be & are hereby empowered to convey & confirm to the said pet'rs such & quantity of the unappropriated land in either of the four Eastern Counties in the Commonwealth as the Committee shall estimate be worth 245 pounds." Daniel Mc-
[page 260]Carthy was possessed of fifty acres of the tract above referred to and the deed of conveyance is on record in Middlesex County under date of June 14, 1774.
The name of Anna, widow of Daniel McCarthy, appears in the Roxbury tax lists of the year 1793, and by deed dated February 1, 1794, "Anna McCarthy of Roxbury, in the County of Norfolk, Executrix of the last Will and Testament of Daniel McCarthy, dec'd, in consideration of 141 pounds 6s. 8d. paid by William Rice of Sudbury, Middlesex County, Gentleman," conveyed to said Rice "all her Right, Title, Interest or Estate" in "the foregoing Deed, described Land and the Bond thereon referred to." This deed was recorded at Cambridge, Middlesex County, on February 26, 1794.
"Mary McCarthy, a poor person in distressed circumstances and not an Inhabitant of any Town in this Province," is so mentioned in the Minutes of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston on August 8, 1770, and on September 20th. of the same year she applied to the Selectmen "for some assistance in her return to Canada by land," when it was "voted that she have Six Dollars advanced to her on Province account." 43 In a list of twenty-three "Taveners and Retailers" of whom twelve were women, authorized by the Selectmen on August 17, 1774, Mary McCarty was "approbated by the Selectmen to Retail at her Shop on Fore Street North End," 44 and still another entry in the Town Books on February 3, 1775, reads: "Mary McCarty received 1 pound 4s. out of the Mrs. Brooker bequest" (for poor and indigent widows of Boston). Daniel Maccarty is mentioned in the Town Books in 1771 as "a poor stranger" whose distress was relieved by order of the Selectmen. One
[page 261]Dennis McCarty came to America as a soldier in Burgoyne's army, but in 1781 he settled at Northfield, Mass., where he lived for many years, and the vital records of that town show that he married Keziah Jennings in 1810. 45 A Massachusetts soldier of the name served in the War of 1812, but he could hardly have been the Northfield Dennis McCarty. Another Massachusetts soldier of the War of 1812 was William McCarty, son of William McCarty who as a youth of sixteen marched from Worcester in the Lexington Alarm of April 19, 1775. In all probability, he was a son of Thaddeus and was the Revolutionary officer before mentioned. On January 12, 1812, William McCarty, Jr., married Elizabeth Harris, daughter of Thomas Harris, a member of Washington's famous Body-Guard.
Thomas McCarty, a merchant of Roxbury, is mentioned in the probate records of Suffolk County. On October 26, 1783, letters of administration were granted to "Sarah McCarty of Roxbury in the County of Suffolk, widow, administratrix of the estate of Thomas McCarty, late of Roxbury, merchant, deceased, intestate," etc., and "Samuel Sumner of Roxbury, Gentleman, and Jacob Hasey Butman of Dorchester, all in the County of Suffolk, became bound with the said Sarah for the faithful discharge of her trust." On November 11, 1783, Sarah McCarty presented an inventory of the estate amounting to 125 pounds 10s. 10d. On the petition of "Daniel Sargent of Boston, Guardian of Margarett McCarty and Mary McCarty, minors," the Massachusetts court on February 26, 1795, resolved "that the said Daniel Sargent be empowered to sell the undivided half part of the dwelling house and land (mentioned in his petition) for the most the same will fetch at public or
[page 262]private sale." Margaret and Mary McCarty were the daughters of Thomas and Sarah McCarty. Among "Heads of Families" in the 1790 census of the City of Boston a number of McCarthys appear, and, that people of the name continued to emigrate from Ireland to New England in the early years of the last century, is seen from the following names taken from a list of "Passengers to America, 1803 and 1804," published in the New England Historic-Genealogical Register: 46
"James McCarty, age 26, Clerk from Dublin"
"James McCarty, age 25, Farmer from Wexford"
"Samuel McCarty, age 25, Labourer from Armagh."
[page 263]CHAPTER X
MC CARTHYS IN CONNECTICUT, RHODE ISLAND, MAINE, NEW HAMPSHIRE AND VERMONT
Owen McCarty, an early settler at New London-The first of the name in Connecticut evidently was Owen McCarty, whose name was recorded in the Town Books of New London under "New Inhabitants that appear between 1670 and 1700." He was a resident of the town in 1693. 1 Among early Connecticut marriages recorded at Fairfield are those of Ann McCarty and James Adair on October 18, 1744, and Elizabeth McCarty and Ebenezer Couch on July 29, 1761. 2 One William McCarty evidently was a resident of Hartford, since his name appears in the probate records of the town 3 on July 6, 1747, as witness to an agreement covering settlement of the estate of Joseph Thompson. William McCarty, who is mentioned in Stiles' Ancient Windsor 4 as witness to the will of William Thomson of
Charles McCarthy, a founder of the town of East Greenwich, R.I.-
Timothy McCarty of Newport-His marriage connections-
The McCartys of Block Island-
The Irish settlements on the Kennebeck River-
The historic town of Cork, Maine-
Timothy McCarthy, a New Hampshire pioneer-
McCarthys in the naval service of the Revolution-
McCarthys appearing in the Vital Records of New England towns-
McCarthys as American business and professional men and in the literary field.
[page 264]Windsor in 1747, and William McCarty who witnessed the will of Samuel Thompson at Ellington, Conn., on July 5, 1747, 5 may have been the same. A William McCarty also appears in the vital records of the town of Wethersfield. John McCarty and Mary, his wife, had children, John, William and Nancy, born to them at Norwich between 1765 and 1769. 6 The son, John, probably was the "Captain John McCarty, commander of the ship, Sally, of Norwich," who is mentioned in the town history of Norwich as having sailed from that place in January, 1799, for the West Indies. We are told "The Sally sank in September, 1800, with a cargo of salt at her dock in Liverpool." 7
James McCarty with other inhabitants of Colchester, Conn., signed a memorial to the General Assembly in May, 1774, "praying to be made a distinct ecclesiastical society... to be called and known by the name of Antioch." 8 Charles Barney McCarthy was another interesting individual who is mentioned in Connecticut history. The historian of the town of Wallingford states that "he was a native of Ireland, came to America in the latter part of the last (eighteenth) century and found his way to Wallingford, a peddler of small articles of dry goods. In a few years he was enabled by his industry and success in business to build and stock a store with dry goods and groceries. He invested largely in real estate and lived to an advanced age. He had a son, Dr. Charles Barney McCarty, a physician in Yalesville, and three daughters." 9 Jeremiah McCarthy served as a Revolutionary soldier from New Milford
[page 265]and Thomas McCartee is mentioned in "the Lexington Alarm List" of that town in 1775, and in the crew of the Continental frigate, Confederacy, recruited at Norwich, when that vessel was captured by an English warship off the Capes of Virginia in April, 1781, I find the name of Daniel McCarthy, with other sailors and marines named Hayes, Powers, Haley, McMullen, Ryan, Courtney, Connel, Carrick, Hagan, Heally, Mooney and Sullivan.
In Rhode Island are also found traces of people of this name at a very early period. At a session of the General Assembly of Rhode Island, held at Newport in the month of May, 1677, an "order" was passed "that a certain tract of land in some convenient place in the Narragansett country shall be laid forth into one hundred acre shares, with the house lots for the accommodation of so many of the inhabitants of this Colony as stand in need of land, and the General Assembly shall judge fit to be supplied." Under this Act 5000 acres were laid forth, five hundred of which were reserved for a town to be known as East Greenwich, the remaining 4500 acres "to be divided in fifty equal shares or great divisions." This grant was made to a company of forty-eight settlers, chiefly in recognition of their services in the war with the Narragansett Indians known in history as "King Phillip's War." One of these fortyeight settlers was Charles McCarthy, whose name is also spelled in Rhode Island records Macarte, Macarta, Mccarty and Makarte, while the same surname borne by other early Rhode Islanders is spelled Maccartee and McCartie. It is quite probable that Charles McCarthy participated in the Indian war, although I fail to find his,name on any lists of Colonial soldiers of the time or in Bodge's History of King Phillip's War, 1675
[page 266]1676 10 That he was a native of Ireland appears to be quite certain from his will, dated February 18, 1682, which was reproduced in part in the Narragansett Historical Register. 11 He seems to have died shortly after 1682, since the will was entered in the town records of the year 1684.
In the "Minutes of a Meeting of the General Assembly held at Newport on May 5, 1679," he was recorded as " Charles Mecarte" and is there referred with two others as "freemen of the towns of East Greenwich" who "are admitted freemen to this Colony." Charles McCarthy's will is a curious and interesting document, written, as it was, in the peculiar style and phraseology of the time. The opening clause reads: "Unto all Christian people unto whome these pents (presents) may com know yee that I Charles Macarte now of the towne of Est grenwich in the Colony of Rhod Island and providence planteteons Being in perfect memory but weake in body doe meake this my lastt will and testiment." It is evident that he was unmarried and had no relatives this side of the water, for he named John Spencer, Junior, his "lawful heir" and bequeathed to him his "house and Land or Lands in this Towne," and directed that John Spencer, Sr., and Richard Dunn act as Guardians to John Spencer, Jr. "to teak care that my will be parformed." All told, he named thirteen persons as the legatees of his real and personal property. He left to "John Gerard, a poor Countryman of mine, three bushels of corne to be paid to him presently after my desese." A passage in the will makes it clear that Charles McCarthy had been a resident of the Island of St. Christophers prior to his coming to Rhode Island, and that he
[page 267]had a brother that went from Ireland to Spain, whence he returned home after the wars. From Kinsale his brother wrote him at St. Christophers, on the supposition that Charles was still there, urging him to return to Ireland. This passage reads:
"I have a letter that came from my Brother from Kinsale after his return from Spaine Being fersed (forced) from home in the war in which Letter he sent for mee home; but the troubles in Cristifars at that time fersed mee from thence to New England and soe hee herd not of mee nor I of him.. . . I will that that Letter with another within it is be sent unto him with a letter to signifie unto him how it hath been with mee since and when and where I end my dayes."
From this it may be assumed that Charles McCarthy of Rhode Island was a native of Kinsale and that he was of the same family as the Virginia and Massachusetts McCartys elsewhere mentioned in this book. At what time he left Ireland for St. Christophers is unknown, as is also the date of his settling in Rhode Island, but about that period there were great numbers of Irish people in the West Indies, driven there by the orders of Cromwell. In the Island of St. Christophers alone, in 1650, there were three thousand Irish Catholics whom the Revd. John Destriche, a Catholic priest, visited disguised as a trader and for whom he is said to have conducted religious services in the depths of the forest. They were persecuted by the English officials of the Island because of their religion, as a result of which the Irish colony was dispersed in course of time, and we read in Virginia records of numbers of Irishmen and Irishwomen arriving in that Colony and in New England during the last quarter of the seventeenth century- It is not at all improbable, therefore, that Charles McCarthy of Rhode Island had in mind this persecution
[page 268]and enforced exile when he referred in his will to "the troubles in Cristifars."
A family of the name, and possibly more than one, located at Newport, Rhode Island, at a very early date. Timothy McCarty, a mariner, was at that place in 1700 and the probate records of Newport 12 of the year 1703 or 1704 indicate that letters of administration to "the estate of Andrew MackCartey late of Salem, deceased, who lately arrived here," were granted to "his father, John MackCartey of Salem." That Timothy McCarty was a man of some local prominence is indicated by his marriage connections. His marriage to Elizabeth Williams, daughter of John Williams, a merchant of Boston and Newport, and who in 1687 was Attorney-General of Rhode Island, is on record at Block Island under date of November 21, 1700. This John Williams was a son of Nathaniel Williams of Boston, who was closely connected by marriage with Governor Bradstreet. Timothy and Elizabeth McCarty had three sons, Daniel, Thomas and Joseph, and a daughter, Althea, whose names appear with different spellings, one branch of the family having changed the name to "Carty." The marriage register of New Shoreham, Block Island, shows that Daniel Carty and Elizabeth Trimm were joined in wedlock at that place on July 28, 1721, and the births of their children, Catherine and Daniel, also appear in the "Vital Records of Rhode Island," 13 on December 29, 1723, and May 26, 1726, respectively. Timothy McCarty also appears in these records, but his name is given erroneously as "Timothy Morey," doubtless because of the manner in which it was written in the
[page 269]original record. Daniel Carty was a resident of the Island as late as 1742, wince his name is entered in the tax lists of that year, but thereafter he disappears from the records, having removed to Westerly, R. I., at which place later members of the family are mentioned.
Timothy McCarty's other sons are mentioned in "The Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island" 14 in an account of the Guttredge family of Newport and Block Island. In the will of Robert Guttredge, dated December 12, 1718, probated June 27, 1723, the testator named among the legatees his "grandson, Thomas Mccarty," and to his "grandsons, Paulsgrove and John Williams, Robert Sands and Joseph Mccarty," he left "all the rest of his estate." Ann, the mother of Elizabeth (Williams) McCarty, and widow of John Williams, married Robert Guttredge and by the peculiar method of referring to relationships in wills and deeds in those days Robert Guttredge described the two sons of Timothy and Elizabeth McCarty as his "grandsons."
Block Island, formerly called New Shoreham, and now part of the State of Rhode Island, lies about twenty miles off the mainland from Newport, and here the Guttredge, Sands, Williams and other families are mentioned among the land owners about the beginning of the eighteenth century. Joseph, son of Timothy McCarty, inherited a small part of the Guttredge and Williams properties and no doubt it was about this time that he and his brothers, Daniel and Thomas, removed to the bleak island off the Rhode Island coast which was then inhabited largely by a tribe known as the Manisses Indians. In examining the headstones over the graves of the early settlers of the Island, I have noticed some bearing the name of Sands and Guttredge, but no Mc-
[page 270]Cartys, and only one of Daniel Carty's children appears in the existing church records of the Island, Catherine Carty, who married James Stafford of the village of New Shoreham on July 18, 1746.
In the parish registers of Trinity Church at Newport are recorded the marriages of Eleanor McCarty and John Martin on March 21, 1744, and of Judith McCarty and Edward Mitchell on October 28 of the same year, and it is probable that Eleanor and Judith McCarty were daughters of the Newport sea-captain, Timothy McCarty. Dennis and William McCarty settled at Warren, Rhode Island, early in the eighteenth century and the will of Dennis, dated April 30, 1756, is found in the probate records of that town under date of November 7, 1757. Like the McCartys of New Hampshire hereinafter alluded to, Dennis McCarty, of Warren, served as a soldier in the colonial wars, and in the preamble to his will he stated that he had been "engaged in the expedition to Crown Point." He seems to have had no relatives, since he divided his property including a sum of 402 pounds among several "beloved friends" in the town of Warren.
There was another Dennis McCarty at Bristol, Rhode Island, who died at that place in 1760, who also served in the French-English war in 1755 15 William and Margaret McCarty, who are listed among "the early inhabitants of Bristol" in 1774, are thought to have been his only children.
The Dennis McCartys of Warren and Bristol were not the only Rhode Island soldiers of the name who served in the French and Indian war. The names of John and Benjamin McCarthy are on the roll of Captain John
[page 271]Whiting's Rhode Island company in 1757, and among other soldiers in the same company were David and Lawrence Carroll, Joseph Dunn, Benjamin Kelley, Charles Mahane and Daniel Byrne, and William Sheehan was Lieutenant of the Company in 1759. Owen McCarthy served on the privateer, George, of Newport in 1758 and in the crew of this vessel we find men named John Burke, Michael Callahan, Edward Doyle, Peter Farrell, James Lynch, Thomas McGivar and Humphrey Sullivan. Edward McCarthy enlisted at Newport for the campaign of 1762 and William McCarthy served in Colonel Rose's Rhode Island regiment in the same year. 15a
In the early years of the eighteenth century two separate colonies of Irish people located in that part of the Province of Massachusetts Bay now embraced in the State of Maine. They settled chiefly in the section bordering on the east of the Kennebeck and south of the Eastern River, in Lincoln and Sagadohac Counties, and in after years this district furnished large quotas of men to the patriot racks in the war for American independence. In the year 1640, one Christopher Lawson acquired from the Indians a large tract of land on the Kennebeck and named it "Ireland," and in 1717 "Robert Temple of Cork purchased the Lawson plantation and settled it with families from Cork in Ireland and it still retains the name of Ireland." 16 Temple himself gave an account of this project in a letter dated Charlestown, Mass., April 17, 1753, addressed to "The Plymouth Proprietors," and a copy of this document may be read in a quaint little book entitled A Defence to the Re-
[page 272]marks of the Plymouth Colony, published in Boston in 1753. Temple stated that in 1717 he "chartered two large Ships and in the next year three more Ships to bring Families from Ireland in order to carry on the Settlement, in consequence of which several Hundred People were landed in Kennebeck River, some of which or their Descendants are Inhabitants there to this day." He relates that "we gave the name of Cork" to a district near the junction of the Kennebeck and Eastern Rivers, where some of the Irish families were settled, but in 1722 the place was attacked by the Indians and Temple's dreams went up in the smoke caused by the fires of the savages, and the little community was soon dispersed. Some removed to Pennsylvania and others to Derry, N. H., and others scattered toward Georgetown and the neighboring settlements in Lincoln and York Counties, Maine. Much interesting information regarding these primitive Irish settlements may be obtained from the Massachusetts Archives, 17 in the Collections of the Maine Historical Society and in an account of "The Lost Town of Cork, Maine," in the Journal of the American Irish Historical Society. 18
Among those who came in these early Irish immigrations to Maine it is evident there were a number of MacCarthys, and the name is found in the vital records of towns in various parts of the State, although nothing is now known of their history. The local historians make hardly any reference to them, and their descendants, if any remain in that territory, evidently have been lacking in that family and racial pride which has prompted the descendants of people of other races to place their story on record. The first appearance of
[page 273]the name in the public records was when "Thaddeus Makerty" was recorded as a witness to a deed dated February 27, 1684, covering the sale of a tract of land in York County. 19 There cannot be much doubt that this was the Thaddeus MacCarty of Boston already alluded to Thomas Maccarty appears in the same records as witness to a deed dated January 6, 1706, between James Russell and John Smith, covering a conveyance of lands known as Martyn's Point on Casco Bay. 20
Among "Marriages in Kittery solemnised by Revd. John Newmarch," 21 there is an entry: "John Mackartrie and Mary Starrett" under date of November 26, 1723, and that a family of the name was also at Scarboro, Maine, is shown by the record of the marriage at that place, on June 21, 1736, of Alice MacCarty and Samuel Winch. From a "Book of Entry of Intentions of Marriage in Georgetown" 22 it is noted that "Timothy Roak and Margrate McCarty" were joined in wedlock on August 19, 1747, and in at least one case in Maine the name was changed to "McCordy." Among the births recorded at Bristol and Bremen, Me., between 1760 and 1779 there are nine children of "John and Anna McCordy," and Ruth McCordy and Daniel Sally were married at Bremen on January 1, 1779. John McCarthy and Mary Miller were married in the Second Church at Falmouth (now Portland) Maine, on April 21, 1768; "Mr. McCartey and Widow Daley, both of Gardinerstown," entered into the bonds of matrimony
[page 274]at Hallowell, Maine, on September 18, 1771; 23 and in a list of "Persons who had children baptized in the Presbyterian church at Scarborough," 24 there is an entry reading: "Jane Harrison, daughter of John and Mary McCartey, September 26, 1773."
John McCarty and Owen Madden were appointed executors of the will of James Moloney of Saint George's, Lincoln County, dated June 20, 1781, 25 and John McCarty's will was recorded on February 5, 1789, in the name of "John McCarter of St. George's." He named as legatees his son, John, and daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, Margaret, Martha and Jane McCarty. The historian of the towns of Bristol and Bremen, Maine, states "the first settlement in Westport is said to have been made by Florence McCarty at McCarty's Cove on the east shore." 26 No date is given, but a Florence McCarthy is mentioned as "one of the earliest settlers at Wiscassett; Maine, in 1786," and a person of the name is mentioned in the Town Register of Georgetown among a number of other Irish settlers. Florence McCarty and Margaret Cockrin were married at Pownalborough, Maine, on January 28, 1787. It is possible that all four of these items refer to the same identical person. One Joseph McCarthy, a resident of Haverhill, Mass., also figures among the early settlers in Maine. His name appears as one of the signers to a petition to the General Court of Massachusetts, dated at Haverhill January 6, 1762, "for permission to settle on lands between the Passamaquoide and St. Croix Rivers." 27 The location of these lands would be in what is now the most
[page 275]easterly section of Maine on the New Brunswick border.
There was a Philip Cartey at Exeter, New Hampshire, as early as 1667, who, doubtless, was of the MacCarthy family. By deed dated April 27, 1667, John Sinkler of Exeter and his wife, Mary, conveyed to Philip Cartey fifteen acres of land at that place and the deed was filed in court on October 8, 1667. 28 In the records of Norfolk County, Mass., Phillip Cartey and Dennis Seahone are mentioned under date of June 24, 1667. "Teague Drisco of Exiter" conveyed to Phillip Cartey ten acres of land at Exeter, described as "bounded by land formerly Jeremiah Conaw's ye most way and land ye towne gave Cornelius Lary." The deed was acknowledged before Samuel Dalton, Commissioner, on December 10, 1674, and is recorded in Norfolk County. 29 No one having any knowledge of Irish names will dispute the correctness of the assumption that "Teague Drisco" was an Irishman named Teague Driscoll, for indeed the pronomen, "Teague," 30 at once stamps him as an Irishman. And it is also probable that Dennis Seahone and Cornelius Lary were fellowcountrymen named respectively Sheehan and Leary. That Cornelius Lary was an Irishman is verified by the New England historian, Dr. George T. Little, who, in referring to the military records of some of his descendants, who served in the Colonial and Revolutionary wars, states "the fact is indisputable that the Lary family were patriots and of the fighting blood that has been the gift of Celtic ancestry." All four of these New England pioneers are listed among the one hundred or more colonial soldiers of Irish names who served in King Phillip's War in New England in 1675-1676, and
[page 276]Philip Cartey, Cornelius Lary, Jeremiah Conaugh, Teague Drisco and James Higgins are also listed among "Persons who paid Rates in Exeter in 1680." 31
Esther Maccarty signed as witness to "articles of apprenticeship" filed in New Hampshire, dated January 10, 1716, by which Richard Whitehorn "bound himself to George Brownell of Boston, Schoolmaster," who undertook "to teach him writeing, reading, syphering and to cause him to be instructed in the arte or mistery of a cooper." 32 This George Brownell was one of Benjamin Franklin's early tutors.
One McCarthy is mentioned in the New Hampshire State Papers as a settler at Londonderry, N. H., in 1739. John Carty signed a "petition to the General Court to form a Parish" with other inhabitants of Epping, N. H., on January 15, 1741, and John Carty, possibly the same, enlisted as a soldier for the colonial war in Captain Abraham Trefithin's New Hampshire company, 33 date of enlistment May 7, 1746; and as a petitioner for lands he appears under date of January 11, 1748 34 "Jerry Carty" served in Colonel Moore's New Hampshire regiment at the capture of Louisburg, Cape Breton, in 1745, and in the French-English war, 1755-1760, among ninety-nine soldiers from New Hampshire bearing distinctive Celtic names, who served at Crown Point and in other expeditions, are found such names as John, Daniel and Jeremiah Carty and Joseph McCarthy.
John McCarthy is mentioned in the State Papers as one of the grantees of Thornton, N. H., under the charter for the organization of the town dated July 6, 1763. 35
[page 277]This town was named in honor of Matthew Thornton, Colonel of a New Hampshire militia regiment in the Revolutionary war and a Signer of the Declaration of Independence. Thornton was a native of Limerick, Ireland. In 1773 John McCarthy joined with Matthew Thornton, Robert, John and William Gilmore, David and James McKean, Roger Magrath and others in a petition to the New Hampshire General Assembly "for changing the County lines." 36
In the genealogy of the Gale family of Sanbornton, N. H., 37 there is an account of "John Gale, the earliest settler of the name in the town," who married Susan McCarthy at Exeter, N. H. No date is given, but John Gale and his wife lived at Sanbornton in 1768, and he is mentioned in County records of the years 1771-1772 and in 1778 they moved to New Boston, N. H., where John Gale died in 1802. The town historian states: "Of Susan McCarthy's father there is the following romantic legend among her descendants in this vicinity: that he was sent from Ireland when a boy by his aunt who wished to secure a large property which he was to have inherited. His parents had died and she consigned him to a sea-captain to be taken to parts unknown. He was finally left at Exeter where he had married and could not return, when his aunt, having learned of his destination, repented on her death-bed and sent for him." In the genealogy of the Huckins family of New Hampshire 38 it is shown that Eunice Gale McCarthy, a daughter of Daniel McCarthy, was born at Sanbornton on July 29, 1797, and that on August 18, 1821, she became the wife of Daniel Huckins, then of
[page 278]Bangor, Maine. The indications are that the Daniel McCarthy here mentioned was a son of the young Irish exile and that the period of the latter's arrival in New Hampshire was about the year 1745.
The activities of one Timothy McCarthy in the development of new towns and settlements in New Hampshire are noted from an examination of the State Papers. For example, he is recorded as one of the "original grantees" of the towns of Colebrook, Dryden and Fairfax, and his name appears on the original charters of these towns dated June 26, 1762, June 27, 1762, and August 18, 1763, respectively. 39 However, I cannot find a Timothy McCarthy as a permanent settler at any of these places and it is my impression that he was a surveyor employed to lay out the towns, although the fact that , he is mentioned as one of the "original grantees" of each of these towns makes it fairly certain that he was interested financially in their beginnings. One Charles McCarty was a resident of Londonderry, N. H., in 1775 and his name appears in the muster-roll of Colonel John Stark's regiment on August 1st of that year. John McCarty of Londonderry also enlisted in the same regiment in 1779 and it is of some interest to note that in the rolls of this regiment also appear such names as Kelley, Callahan, Egan, McGrath, McClary, McMurphy, McLaughlin, McNeil, McCrillis, McGaffey, McShannon, McDuffie, McConnel, Burke, Broderick, Moore, Casey, Dwyer, Roach, Nealey, Walsh, Connor, Lyons, Powers, Nevins, Collins, Dalton, Taggart, Lynch, Ryan and O'Neill. This regiment saw considerable active service, beginning with the battle of Bunker Hill, at the siege of Boston, at Ticonderoga, in Washington's retreat through
[page 279]New Jersey, at Trenton, Princeton and other engagements.
A Timothy McCarthy is mentioned as one of the original patentees of Milton, Vermont, on the east shore of Lake Champlain, under the charter for the organization of the town dated June 18, 1763, signed by Governor Bennington Wentworth. He appears among the early settlers at that place prior to the Revolution 40 Another of the name in Vermont was Hugh McCarty, one of the early settlers at Arlington. He has a soldier of the Revolution and in the Council Records of Vermont under date of October 11, 1781, there is a petition by Hugh McCarty praying for relief, followed by a resolution of the Committee of Safety directing the Treasurer "to pay to Hugh McCarty ten pounds, which money was granted to him by the General Assembly in October last on account of his being a prisoner among the British in Canada the year past." 41
At least three of the name were masters of New England privateers during the Revolution. From the commencement of the war until its close the towns along the New England coast were largely engaged in privateering and many are the stories of daring and adventure that are told of the "Yankee privateersmen" who preyed on British commerce, and brought into American ports numerous prizes of war, the cargoes of which furnished important and seasonable supplies for the Continental army. Not a few of the hardy commanders of American privateers during the two wars for independence were Irishmen, and in the fugitive references that I have found to the personnel of their crews, it is also seen that they had in their command many a patriot
[page 280]son of "the fighting race. 42 A Captain McCarthy of Boston was master of a privateersman during the early years of the Revolution. I believe him to have been identical with the Captain Daniel McCarthy before mentioned as commander of the ship Sally, trading out of Boston.
Among New England mariners who made New London their home port during the Revolutionary period, and who are mentioned as masters of vessels chartered as privateers, were Captains Richard McCarty and John McCarthy, who in all probability were brothers. Very little is known of Captain Richard, but we are told that "he was wrecked on May 17, 1779, in a snow-storm off Plum Island (Newburyport, Mass.), and himself and his crew of six persons were lost." 43 In the "Narrative of John Hempstead" relating to the destruction of New London during the Revolutionary war, the name of Captain John McCarthy is mentioned as being "on the hunt for a tory," and it would appear that he was engaged in this diversion during one of his visits to his home port. He was master of the Black Princess, and from an announcement of his capture printed in the New York Gazette and Weekly Mercury of December 17, 1781, we may safely assume that the reputation of the gallant Irish captain was not unknown to his enemies. This account reads: "Her Majesty's Frigate, the Medea, Captain Duncan, on her passage from the Chesapeake took the Black Princess of 24 twelve pounders and 170 men, commanded by the noted McCarty."
In a "list of Americans committees to old mill Prison,
[page 281]England, during the War," reproduced by the New England Historic-Genealogical Society, 44 there appears the name of "Captain Edward McCarty of the Black Princess, taken October 11, 1781," but it is probable that this refers to Captain John McCarthy, since there is no mention of an "Edward McCarty" in the service of any of the naval establishments of the Colonies. After the war, Captain John McCarthy continued in the merchant service and his name appears several times in shipping records as commander of New England vessels. He died on a voyage from the West Indies to New London in the year 1804. His children were John, Rebecca, Elizabeth and Abby. The son removed to Wisconsin and settled as a trader in what is now the vicinity of Green Bay, and as the daughters removed to Albany, N. Y., it is quite likely that, Captains John was of the McCarthy family of that City, referred to elsewhere in this book. Elizabeth McCarthy became the wife of Samuel Forman, of Syracuse, and Rebecca and Abby married Schuyler and Sanders Van Rensselaer, respectively, both of Albany. Another of the McCarthys, Charlotte Amelia, daughter of Andrew McCarthy, a relative of Captain John, married Henry Van Bergen of Catskill, and Richard McCarty married Elizabeth Van Bergen in the year 1798. 45
Another noted New England mariner in his day was Captain Justin McCarthy, who was born in Cork, Ireland, in the year 1766. The exact time of his arrival in America is unknown, but be is mentioned as of Salem, Mass., at the close of the Revolution and there is a record of his marriage at Salem to Lydia Lawrence on April 14, 1790, and of his joining the Essex Lodge of Masons
[page 282]there on May 1, 1798. 46 He died on September 7 1802, and from an account of his death in the Salem Register we learn that "he was highly esteemed in private life and was as accomplished mariner. As a citizen he was deserving and had the confidence of all who knew him. He was interred with masonic honors and was followed to the grave by a numerous band of mourners." Among New England seamen of Irish birth or blood who served on vessels of the Massachusetts Navy in the Revolution, the McCarthys make a creditable showing. Daniel McCarthey was midshipman on the frigate Deane; Jeremiah McCarthy was boatswain's mate on the frigate Boston, and among the seamen and marines were Andrew and Daniel McCarthy who served on the frigate Eagle, James McKarty and Jusin McCarty on the General Mifflin, Francis McCarthy and Timothy McCarthy on the ship Protector, Francis McCarty on the sloop Defence, John McCarty on the ship Mars, and Timothy McCarty on the ship Hazard.
From the muster-rolls of the New England regiments of the Line and of the Provincial Militia, I have secured the names of 32 Revolutionary soldiers of the name. I have not made any effort to ascertain the records of these men, and cannot say in all cases where in New England they resided before or after the war; but, from the fact that many of them enlisted "for the duration of the war," or "for three years," we may assume that they were enthusiastic soldiers of American liberty. However, several of these men enlisted at Boston, which indicates that they were residents of that City. Others enlisted from Roxbury, Charlestown, Scituate, Lunenburg, and Pelham, Mass.; from Pownalsboro, Vt., and
[page 283]Machias, Me. References to the extracts from the vital records of New England towns at page 309 will show that other people of the name, besides those mentioned in the text, were in New England in the eighteenth century. Their names are found in the birth, marriage and death records of such old Puritan towns as Billerica, Dorchester, Hanover, Medford and Manchester in Massachusetts; at Fairfield, Canterbury and Glastonbury in Connecticut; at Westminster, Rhode Island; at Scarboro, Falmouth, Hallowell, Georgetown and Kittery, in Maine, exclusive of those who enlisted in the Revolutionary army from other New England towns. When so many persons of the name are recorded, and in widely-separated parts of the Colony, no one can dispute the assertion that large numbers of McCarthys emigrated from Ireland to the New England provinces, especially when we consider the fact that only a fraction of the total number of any surname, at any time, usually appear in public records.
It is indeed surprising to find so many descendants of such an old Irish family living among the New England Puritans, the antipathy of many of whom toward the Irish manifested itself in all their dealings with those unfortunate exiles. It is evident that it was not so much their nationality as it was their religion that the Puritans objected to, and in the case of the three most prominent of the name in New England, namely Thaddeus, Thomas and Florence of Boston, there cannot be the slightest doubt that originally they professed the Catholic faith. So, we must assume that they conformed to the Protestant religion very soon after their arrival in America, for otherwise they could not have risen to the important stations occupied by them in the business and social life of their time.
[page 284]Many others of the name besides those mentioned herein have figured in the social and business life of various American communities withs credit to their name and race, and a remarkably large number of McCarthys appear in the Directories of American cities as physicians, lawyers, engineers and school teachers. Florence McCarthy was "one of the highly esteemed merchants of the City of Richmond, Va.," 47 during the first half of the last century. He and his wife were natives of Ireland, and of their five sons who served in the Confederate ranks in the Civil War, one of them was Captain of the Richmond Howitzers and was killed in battle and another is the Honorable Carlton McCarthy, an esteemed citizen of Richmond and Mayor of the City about twenty years ago. Carlton McCarthy is the author of several books, one of which, "Soldier Life in the Army of Northern Virginia" is it highly interesting account, of his personal experiences in the field. In Illinois and Iowa there are many people of the name, engaged mainly in agricultural and mercantile pursuits and a very prominent member of the family in the west is Michael Henry McCarthy of Dubuque, who has been actively identified for many years with extensive coal and lumber enterprises on the Mississippi and its tributaries. Three of his sons served in France in the World War.
In the literary field the American McCarthys, following the bent of some of their kinsmen in Ireland, have not been inactive. At the Library of Congress there are approximately two hundred book titles copyrighted by writers of the name, bearing the imprint of American publishing houses. Among these may be mentioned Dwight G. McCarty of Emmetsburg, Iowa, author of
[page 285]a History of Palo Alto County, Iowa, The Territorial Governors of the Old Northwest, and other valuable contributions to the early history of the west; Gerald McCarthy of North Carolina, a prolific writer on such subjects as agriculture, silk culture, tobacco and fruit cultivation, published during the past thirty years at Raleigh, N. C; Dr. Charles H. McCarthy, Professor at the Catholic University of America, author of a History of the United States for Catholic Schools, and of Lincoln's Plan of Reconstruction; Mr. Charles McCarthy, Librarian of the Wisconsin State Library, author of several works on civics, politics, agriculture and education: William McCarty of Philadelphia., compiler and publisher of several collections of national songs and ballads; Rev. Dr. Joseph H. McCarthy, author of a very interesting book on Mexico entitled, Two Thouand ballads; Rev. Dr. Joseph H. McCarthy, author of a very interesting book on Mexico entitled, Two Thousand Miles Through the Heart of Mexico, and one of the "sweet singers of the present day in America is Denis A. McCarthy of Boston, author of four volumes of exquisite poetry.
Several of the family are mentioned in the Canadian records. Dalton McCarthy, a distinguished lawyer of Toronto, was a descendant of Captain Donal Mor MacCarthy, one of the commanders of the Irish forces in the Rebellion of 1798, who emigrated to Canada, where he died in the year 1825. Others of his descendants reside at St. Paul, Minnesota. Cornelius and Charles McCarthy are prominent lawyers in that City and others of the family occupy executive positions on Western railroads. Le Comte Joseph Henri Auguste de MacCarthy and Justin MacCarthy were Canadian writers during the first decade of the last century, whose books were published in the French language at Quebec and Montreal, and Jean MacCarthy, descendant of one of
[page 286]the Irish exiles to France, was a noted traveler in his time and was the author of a ten-volume work on his "travels in the four quarters of the earth" in the year 1806, published at Paris in 1821 and 1822, two volumes of which are in his Voyages en Amerique.
[page 287]CHAPTER XI
THE FIGHTING RACE
McCarthys fought in every war in which America has been engaged--Many officers of the name in the War of 1812, the Mexican and Civil Wars, and the Spanish-American War--Colonel Daniel E. McCarthy was the first American soldier to set foot on the soil of France in the World War--McCarthys who served their country in the War of the Revolution--14 officers and 335 enlisted men--The Government publication, "A Century of Population Growth," analyzed--McCarthys omitted from the Census of 1790--Conclusion.No more apt expression has ever been used to describe a distinguishing characteristic of any people than the terse and popular phrase, "The Fighting Race," applied to the Irish by Joseph I.C. Clarke in his famous poem known by that title. The willingness of the Celt to fight in any cause, especially in a just cause, is a byword of time, since it is exemplified by the history of the race all down through the centuries. They have carried on a long fight for the freedom of their own land, and although they have been repulsed and disheartened times out of mind, the spirit of nationality has never been extinguished in Ireland, and to-day there is every indication the the aspirations of her people will soon be realized. They have fought for England on sea and land, and it is a pitiful irony of fate that they have helped by their numbers and their prowess as soldiers to establish English rule under every sun. They have fought for France, Spain and Austria, and on every battlefield in Continental Europe from mediæval times down to the recent World War, the
[page 288]"Irish Yell" has been heard above the strife and often has brought terror and dismay to the opposing forces. Long before the Revolution the Irish began to come to America, and in the muster-rolls of the troops who fought in the colonial wars against the French and Indians, Irish names stand out prominently. In the War of the Revolution, it has been proved, by a careful and conservative computation from the muster-roll and other records, that the Irish immigrants and their descendants furnished thirty-eight per cent of the fighting men, and this, notwithstanding the fact the the Irish constituted a much smaller proportion of the population of the Colonies. 1 The War of 1812, the Mexican and Civil Wars, and the Spanish-American war, each in turn gave opportunities to the Irish in America, and in the recent World strife they met the test with the same spirit that they have always displayed when the interests of their country were at stake. Their record as a "Fighting Race" stands unchallenged, even by their enemies.
Many officers of the name are listed in the rosters of the armies of the United States at various times. Patrick McCarty served in the "Whiskey Rebellion" in Western Pennsylvania in 1794, and on March 3, 1799, he was appointed Lieutenant of the Third United States Infantry. In the War of 1812, John McCarthey was Lieutenant of the Sixteenth Infantry; Lieutenant John McCartey of the Twenty-Third Infantry was made prisoner at Queenston Heights, Canada, on October 13, 1812, and was promoted to Captain on June 14, 1814, and Captain William McCarthy commanded a New York Volunteer Corps in the War of 1812. In the Mexican War, we find James C. McCarty, Lieutenant of the Fifth
[page 289]Tennessee Infantry; John McCarty, Lieutenant of the First Texas Volunteers and later Captain of Texas Rifles; William M. McCarty, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Third Indiana Infantry, and Justus I. McCarty was appointed Captain of New York Infantry on February 27, 1847, and Major of the Tenth United States Infantry on March 3rd of the same year.
In the Civil War, officers of the name served on both sides. Jeremiah McCarthy was Captain of the First Pennsylvania Artillery; Florence L. McCarthy was First Lieutenant of the 59th New York Infantry and was made Captain on May 18, 1865; Rev. Patrick F. McCarthy was Hospital Chaplain of United States Volunteers; Lieutenant Patrick McCarthy served with the 69th New York; Lieutenant Charles McCarthy with the 63rd New York Volunteers; Captain Patrick McCarthy with the Fourth New York, and John McCarthy was First Lieutenant and Adjutant of the Third New York, all four of these regiments having been part of Corcoran's Irish Legion, and Captain Charles McCarthey served with the 175th New York Regiment. Among the Virginians in the Confederate Army were: William Page McCarty, Captain of Artillery, who is described in annals of the war as "a very gallant soldier"; Clinton McCarty, Major of Kentucky troops and afterwards Adjutant-General on the staff of General Hawes; William S. McCarty, First Lieutenant of Confederate States Artillery which surrendered at Appomattox in 1865; Daniel McCarty was an officer in the same corps; James Ball McCarty was Captain of the Ninth Virginia Cavalry; Stephen Washington McCarty, a Confederate officer, was killed at the first battle of Manassas; William Thaddeus McCarty was Captain of the "University Volunteers," serving in General Henry A. Wise's Bragade;
[page 290]James W. McCarty was Lieutenant and Adjutant of Ashby's Virginia Cavalry; Edward McCarthy, Captain of the Richmond Howitzers, was killed at the battle of Cold Harbor in June, 1864, and John W. McCarty, Adjutant of the Seventh Virginia Cavalry, fought at Gettysburg, "where," a description of him says, "he proved himself, as always, fearless of danger."
Serving in the infantry regiments in the Spanish-American war, we find Captain Daniel McCarthy of the famous 69th New York; Captain Thomas McCarthy of Massachusetts troops; Timothy F. McCarthy, Captain of the Third New Jersey; William W. McCarthy, Lieutenant of the Second Kansas; Jeremiah F. McCarthy, Lieutenant of the First Georgia; John F. McCarthy, Lieutenant, 35th Infantry United States Army; Dr. William D. McCarthy, Major-Surgeon of the First California, and Daniel E. McCarthy, Major and Quartermaster of United States Volunteers.
The last-mentioned officer is now Colonel, Quartermaster Corps of the United States Army, and had the distinction of being the first American soldier to set foot on the soil of France in the recent World War! In an account of his personal experiences in the war, sent to me by Colonel McCarthy, he states that under "General Orders Number 1, American Expeditionary Force," he was appointed Chief Quartermaster, and on May 28, 1917, he left New York for England accompanied by other officers and enlisted men. On June 10th General Pershing ordered him to France, as President of a Board of Officers to select the ports of debarkation for the American troops, and on the same evening they arrived at Boulogne. "As the commanding officer of the party," writes Colonel McCarthy, "I went down the gang plank first, which gave me the honor of being the
[page 291]first man of the American Expeditionary Force to land in France." In his travels through France, Colonel McCarthy says that he "was very much impressed with the number of French people of Irish extraction." "At Bordeaux, when I was introduced to a French Engineer officer, he threw his arms around me and stated that his grand-mother was a McCarthy and invited me out to visit her at her Chateau, some distance from Bordeaux." Other French officers of Irish descent he also mentions in his narrative. Shortly after he arrived in France, he relates that he received a letter from Pol, Comte de Blarney Carty, addressing him as his "dear cousin," and, "as the descendant of one of the Irish patriots who came here centuries ago to fight for France, I welcome you as a worthy representative of the Irish race and as a McCarthy, who has come from America to fight for France and liberty!"
The record of the McCarthys in the service of the patriot forces in the war of the Revolution is one in which people of the name may well take pride. Of the great numbers of Irish names which appear in the muster-rolls of the Revolutionary army and navy, the McCarthys rank third 2 with a total of 14 officers and 335 enlisted men, including those bearing the abbreviated forms of the name, Carty and Cartie. Of the men of the rank and file, 117 enlisted in Pennsylvania, 41 in New York, 37 in Maryland, 32 in Massachusetts, 18 in the Carolinas, 17 in Virginia, 14 each in New Jersey and Connecticut, 13 in New Hampsire and the remaining 37 scattering. A list of these men, with the disignation of the regiments or names of the ships to which they were attached, taken from such of the muster-rolls
[page 292]and enlistement papers as I have been able to examine, is appended hereto (appendix), and when the fact is considered that historians of the Revolution usually give no credit to the Irish as participants in the war for American Independence, this large number of Revolutionary soldiers and sailors representing one Irish family alone probably will be a revelation to many people who thought they were acquainted with the details of the history of the Revolution. And, that even this long list is incomplete, is indicated by the occasional references that are made to Revolutionary soldiers named McCarthy who are not listed in the existing muster-rolls.
For example, according to the will of Jeremiah McCarthy of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, he served as a private soldier in a Pennsylvania regiment prior to 1782, yet his name does not appear in the rolls which I examined. A copy of the will was reproduced in the American Monthly Magazine, 3 the official organ of the Daughters of the American Revolution, with the explanation that it was neither probated nor recorded but was found some years ago among a lot of miscellaneous papers, the accumulation of the greater part of two centuries, in the basement of the Westmoreland County court house. The will is dated August 17, 1782, and Jeremiah McCarthy described himself therein as "a soldier of Captain Samuel Brady's company in a detachment of the Pennsylvania Line." To his wife, Margaret, and his sons, John, Daniel and Jeremiah, he bequeathed "each one an equal part of my worldly substance consisting of 18 months' pay due me from the late Captain Heath's Independent Company for my services as a private soldier in said Company; likewise all the pay now due me in the Pennsylvania Line." And he em-
[page 293]powered "Mr. John Bradley, now an inhabitant of Pittsburg, to receive the aforesaid pay or pays as my just and lawful executor and distribute the aforesaid as before directed." Captain Samuel Brady commanded a company of Colonel Francis Johnston's regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, and while three soldiers named Jeremiah McCarthy are included in the appended list as of the Pennsylvania Line, none of these men served in Captain Brady's company. One was in Captain Thomas Boude's company of the Eighth regiment and was from Lancaster County, one in the Seventh regiment under Colonel William Irvine and the third in the Fifth regiment commanded by Colonel Richard Butler, and it is an interesting historical fact that all three officers, Johnston, Irvine and Butler, were natives of Ireland. There is no Jeremiah McCarthy listed in the copy of the roster which I examined of Captain Heath's Independent Company.
Another example is that of Randolph McCarthy who, according to the Naval Records of the American Revolution published by the Library of Congress, 4 was appointed mate of the Pennsylvania sloop of war, Sally, on December 20, 1781; yet his name is also missing from the list for the reason stated. Still another example is that of Daniel McCarty. He is referred to in Boogher's Gleanings of Virginia History 5 as a private soldier in the First Virginia State Regiment, popularly known as "Gibson's Lambs." They were commanded by Colonel George Gibson and were skilled sharpshooters, and "being distinguished for independence and personal bravery, they assisted in repelling Lord Dunmore's attack on Hampton, Va., on October 25, 1775." Boogher lists Daniel McCarty as "dead," which explains the
[page 294]absence of his name from the particular roll that was examined by me and why his name is not included in the appended list of Revolutionary soldiers. Among the officers the name of William McCarthy is not included. In Force's American Archives there is a letter to John Hancock, President of Congress, dated from Montreal, May 17, 1776, from Samuel Chase and Charles Carroll, the American Commissioners in Canada, one passage of which reads: "Necessity has compelled us to desire Mr. William McCarthy to execute the office of Deputy Quarter-Master-General and we hope Congress will send that gentleman a commission of this date. Our Generals here exercise the power of appointing officers, but we have not, nor do we remember that they have any such power." Careful search fails to disclose who this William McCarthy was, but it is evident that he was an officer of the Revolutionary forces and was regarded by the American Commissioners as a man of no little importance and efficiency.
Other instances may also be quoted, that is where men of the name are referred to as having served in the Revolution but who I have not felt justified in including in the accompanying list, because I am unable to find their names in the official rolls. Some of these Revolutionary soldiers receive casual mention in town and county histories, but, as to what part they played in those stirring days, I am entirely without knowledge as I have had no opportunity to investigate their story. But, although there is a great dearth of information on record concerning the individual soldiers of the Revolution, especially of the enlisted men, I believe there must be some data available from the local town records and from the traditions of the families of the descendants from which a more complete history of this family in America may
[page 295]be compiled, and if some of the McCarthys would only interest themselves in the work I am sure they would find it a most conjenial employment.
That age did not deter American patriots from serving their country when men were needed to uphold the standard of revolt against the tyranny of England, is seen from the case of John McCarthy of the Pennsylvania Artillery. In the Dockets of the Orphans' Court of the City and County of Philadelphia of the years 1785 and 1786 there are records of a number of applications for pensions, and under date of December 14, 1785, the following interesting entry appears: "The Court having examined and considered the Case of John McCarthy, late a Matross of the Fourth Regiment of Artillery belonging to Pennsylvania, aged about 64 years, find that he was wounded in the Belly at the Battle of Green Springs in the State of Virginia on the sixth day of July, 1781, and afterwards contracted chronic disorders in the service of the United States by reason whereof he is in a great degree disabled of getting livelihood by Labor. The Court do therefore allow him a Pension of three dollars per month." And later, "upon application of John Nicholson, Esqr. Comptroller-General, on behalf of the following Pensioners their Pensions were Augmented to five Dollars per month from this day by the Court, to wit, to John Green, John McCarthy, Garret Fagan, John St. John, James Sheridan and John Lane."
When people of the name are mentioned in the prosaic official records of the Colonies, and such numbers and in such stations in life as are indicated herein, it is clear that the McCarthys were not as unimportant a factor in contributing to the work of nation-building as is generally supposed of people of Irish blood in this country.
[page 296]It is a singular circumstance that the government publication, A Century of Population Growth, which purports to be a compendium of the First Census of the United States, shows only 625 McCarthys all told in the United States in 1790, and when a comparison of the census figures in made by States with the number of persons of the name mentioned in the muster-rolls of the Colonial and Revolutionary wars and in other eighteeth century records, the discrepancy becomes still more surprising.
Careful analysis of the figures furnished to us through A Century of Population Growth proves the utter untrustworthiness of this publication. For example, the government statisticians show there were only 125 people named McCarthy of both sexes and of all ages and conditions in the State of Pennsylvania in 1790. Yet, there where 117 McCarthys who enlisted in the Revolutionary forces in that State. In the average case, reliable statistics indicate that that number of soldiers of any one name would mean that there must have been at least twice the number of men of the same name in the State, and when we add the same conservative figure to represent the women and children, the total would reach approximantely 560. Then, when we consider the number mentioned in the text and in the incomplete list at page 309 to 317 of the McCarthys appearing in the Pennsylvania marriage records, we can safely assume that seven years after the war the number of McCarthys in the State could not have been far short of 800. So that, the McCarthys in the Pennsylvania census returns represent hardly more than fifteen per cent of the total number of people of the name in the State in 1790.
In Connecticut and New Hampshire it is observed that, according to A Century of Population Growth,
[page 297]there was not one person named McCarthy in 1790, which is obviously an error since twenty-seven soldiers of the name enlisted in the Revolutionary army from those States (exclusive of those appearing in the land, court and church records); and surely some of these soldiers must have returned to their homes after the war and had children or relatives of the name. In Massachusetts we are told there were only seventy-two McCarthys of both sexes in 1790; but, as will be noted, one man of the name alone, Thaddeus of Worcester, was the father of fifteen children all born at Worcester, between 1744 and 1763, only three of whom died within that period, and of the twelve who survived until 1790, eight were males and were the fathers of many children. When we add to these the numerous descendants in the male line of Thomas, Thaddeus and Florence MacCarty of Boston and of the McCarthys who are recorded as residing in various other places in Massachusetts during the eighteenth century, more than 200 in all, again we have a striking illustration of the worthlessness of the figures given to us in A Century of Population Growth.
Only 116 McCarthys are shown by the census returns to have resided in the State of New York in 1790, but on going over the list of McCarthys whose names appear in New York records of the eighteenth century, we find a total of 142. And this is far short of the actual total, because the records examined were only those of the land office, a few of the church registers, the muster-rolls of the Colonial and Revolutionary troops, probate records and others of that class. And as many other records were inaccessible to me or were not consulted, in which people of the name undoubtedly appear, the total number obviously was far greater than 142. It is safe to say that the descendants of these 142 McCarthys
[page 298]living in the State of New York in 1790 must have numbered several hundreds.
In Maryland, if we are to accept A Century of Population Growth, only thirty-five McCarthys, male and female, resided in 1790, although thirty-seven men and boys of the name are recorded in the muster-rolls of the Revolutionary troops organized in that State, in addition to which I have given some details concerning fifty other McCarthys whose names appear in the Colonial records. On the conservative basis of calculation before described, and taking into consideration the probability that many of the eighty-seven McCarthys married and brought up families, who, or whose children, were living in Maryland in 1790, we are warranted in assuming that at least 160 of the McCarthys in Maryland were not included in the census enumerators' lists from which the total of thirty-five was compiled. In the adjoining State of Virginia the census shows 140 McCarthys in 1790, and, without making any analysis of the figures, I leave it to the judgement of the readers of this book to form their own conclusions as to how nearly correct the government statisticians are, when the fact is taken into consideration that there are 243 McCarthys mentioned in the Virginia land and probate records alone prior to 1790, many of whom married and brought up families and had descendants in the male line.
The figures for these six States will suffice for the purposes of this comparison and probably will make the point clear, namely that a very large number of the McCarthys are not included in A Century of Population Growth. What the reason for the omission may be I am unable to say, but it may be that it was because many of them resided in sections of the country not
[page 299]reached by the census enumerators. The statement, therefore, that the figures in this publication, official though it is, are unreliable is not merely a generalization nor a mere inference, since it is fully substantiated by analysis of the factors which form the basis of the publication. And it can be said that the same identical remarks apply to many other Irish family names which I selected for a similar analysis. And yet, A Century of Population Growth is the basis upon which is built the theory that people of Irish descent constituted only one and six-tenth per cent of the population of the United States in 1790, and, as a logical inference, that they contributed little or nothing to the work of building up the country and to the achievement of American independence! It is the "authority" usually quoted by shallow commentators on the racial origins of the American people; it is used in the schools, colleges and libraries of the country; with the result that a deep rooted impression prevails that the American people are almost wholly of the "Anglo-Saxon," i.e. the "English," race, and that the contributions of people of other races to the glory and development of our country have been so negligible as to be altogether unworthy of serious consideration! That this is so, is clear from the opinions on the subject which are expressed from time to time by editorial writers, in the speeches of public men and by contributors to the magazines and the correspondence columns of the newspapers. But, as stated before, in so far as the American Irish and their descendants are concerned, all this is the inevitable result of the neglect of the Irish themselves, who have given practically no attention to the important work of investigating their history in America, while at the same time they look
[page 300]on complacently at the constant undermining of their influence in a country to whose developement their people contributed so much.
It will be noted that in writing this account of the McCarthys, I have confined myself solely to facts, gleaned from authoritative sources, but if the traditions of the time were drawn upon to embellish the story, as one would be perfectly justified in doing, it would make a much more extensive and interesting historical narrative. There is every reason to believe that an exhaustive search of the records would bring to light much other valuable data relating to people of this name in Colonial and Revolutionary times, if some one with the time and the taste for such work would devote himself to the task. A comparison of an early map of the United States with the places where the McCarthys are located, at once shows that many of them settled on the frontiers, or at any rate in outlying sections far removed from the centers of population.
It is shown that they were among the pioneers in various places, as owners and tillers of the soil, defenders of the homes and firesides of the early settlers, builders of the highways, laborers and artisans, tradesmen and millers, and that, in common with other pioneers of those days, they contributed their share to the laying of the foundations of the country's future greatness.
In the towns and settlements along the seaboard they are found among the merchants and shipbuilders, and in no case do they appear among the "drones of society," but that in every respect the early McCarthys in America measured up to the standard of those pioneer settlers to whom the country owes so much and whose story has been told, in many cases with great detail, by American historians.
Enlisted men, from the muster-rolls and enlistment papers of the Revolutionary army and navy and the Provincial Militia.
McCarthy, Bartholomew, Cumberland County, Penna. Militia.
McCarthy, Bartholomew, Colonel Brooks' Regiment of Mass. Guards.
McCarthy, Charles, Philadelphia County, Penna. Militia.
McCarthy, Charles, Philadelphia City, Penna. Artillery.
McCarthy, Daniel, Philadelphia City, Penna. Militia.
McCarthy, Daniel, Philadelphia City, Penna. Militia.
McCarthy, Daniel, Pennsylvania Navy.
McCarthy, Daniel, First Regiment New York Line.
McCarthy, Daniel, Continental frigate, Confederacy.
McCarthy, Daniel, Grayson's Maryland Continental Regiment.
McCarthy, Daniel, Colonel Greaton's Massachusetts Regiment.
McCarthy, Daniel, Colonel McIntosh's Suffolk County, Mass. Regiment.
McCarthy, Daniel, Dutchess County, New York troops.
McCarthy, Daniel, Jr., Colonel Greaton's Massachusetts Regiment.
McCarthy, Daniel, Frigate Hague, Massachusetts Navy.
McCarthy, Dennis, Philadelphia City, Penna. Militia.
McCarthy, Dennis, Third Regiment, New York Line.
McCarthy, Dennis, First Regiment, New York Line.
McCarthy, Dennis, Colonel Gansevoort's New York Regiment.
McCarthy, Ewen, First Pennsylvania Artillery.
McCarthy, Felix, Berks County, Penna. Militia.
McCarthy, Francis, Ship Mars, Massachusetts Navy.
McCarthy, Florence, Fourth Regiment, North Carolina Line.
McCarthy, Florence, North Carolina troops (regiment unknown).
McCarthy, George, Colonel Warner's Regiment, Connecticut Line.
McCarthy, Jeremiah, Frigate Boston, Massachusetts Navy.
McCarthy, James, Crane's Massachusetts Artillery.
McCarthy, James, Pennsylvania Navy.
McCarthy, James, Colonel Greaton's Massachusetts Regiment.
McCarthy, James, Tenth Regiment, North Carolina Line.
McCarthy, John, Philadelphia City, Penna. Militia.
[page 302]McCarthy, John, Colonel Elliott's Rhode Island Regiment.
[page 303]McCarty, Charles, Stark's New Hampshire Regiment.
[page 304]McCarty, Felix, First Regiment, New York Line.
[page 305]McCarty, John, Colonel Peabody's New Hampshire Regiment.
[page 306]McCarty, Timothy, Virginia State Line.
[page 307]McCartie, Sharrod, Georgia Continental Brigade.
[page 308]Cartey, Daniel, Maryland Line (regiment unknown).
These names are as they appear in the records, but in several cases of the "McCartneys," "McCarts," and others, it is found that they were really "McCarthys."
Extracts from the marriage records, showing the various places in the American Colonies where families named McCarthy were located prior to the year 1800. Besides the places shown in this list, the records of baptisms and burials of many of the parish churches indicate that families named McCarthy lived in various other places in the Colonies.
|1683, January||Mary McCarty||and Joseph Hunscot||Boston, Mass.|
|1684, July 9||John McCarty||and Ann Harmon||New York, N.Y.|
|1696, April 7||Elisabeth McKarta||and Thomas Bridgewater||Boston, Mass.|
|1697, August 24||Florence MacCarty||and Sarah Nework||Boston, Mass.|
|1700, November 21||Timothy McCarty||and Elizabeth Williams||Newport, R.I.|
|1706, January 8||Florence MacCarty||and Christian Dobbins||Boston, Mass.|
|1701, June 26||Elizabeth McCarty||and Samuel Sanders||Boston, Mass.|
|1708, May 20||Margaret MacCarty||and Amos Angier||Boston, Mass.|
|1708, December 23||Mary McCarty||and Matthew Hole||Boston, Mass.|
|1710, December 14||Dennis Makharty||and Elisabeth Reedt||New York, N.Y.|
|1712, January 5||Sarah McCarty||and Thomas Foster||Boston, Mass.|
|1712, December 25||Mary McCarty||and Jeremiah Philbrick||Boston, Mass.|
|1714, May 30||Christina McCarty||and William Turney||Boston, Mass.|
|1714, June 24||William McCarty||and Margaret Powell||Boston, Mass.|
|1716, May 25||Rebeccah MacCarthy||and Thomas Davis||Boston, Mass.|
|1716, June 14||Thaddeus MacCarty||and Mary Greenough||Boston, Mass.|
|1717, June 26||Elizabeth MacCarty||and Samuel Saunders||Boston, Mass.|
|1718, March 23||Mary McCarty||and Robert Marshall||Boston, Mass.|
|1718, May 18||Ruth MacCarty||and John Smith||Wrentham, Mass.|
|1718, June 2||Mary MacCarty||and Ebenezer Fisher||Dedham, Mass.|
|1721, July 8||Daniel Carty||and Elizabeth Trim||Block Island, R. I.|
|1723, July 24||John Carty||and Elizabeth Stevens||Berkeley County, S. C.|
|1723, November 26||James MacKarthe||and Mary Starrett||Kittery, Me.|
|1724, September 22||Dennis McCarty||and Sarah Ball||Westmoreland Co., Va.|
|1728, April 27||Sarah McCarty||and Thomas Beale||Richmond County, Va.|
|1729, January 7||Sarah McCarty||and Henry Davis||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1729, March 19||Mary Maccarty||and Ebenezer Bridge||Boston, Mass.|
|1729, June 25||William McCarthy||and Margaret Pulsaver||Newbury, Mass.|
|1730, September 2||Hannah McCarty||and Standish Ffoord||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1732, August 9||James Makcarthy||and Elizabeth Smith||Hanover, Mass.|
|1732, June 16||Billington McCarty||and Ann Barker||Richmond County, Va.|
|1732, September 30||James Makcarthy||and Ann Prys||New York, N.Y.|
|1733, October 25||Daniel McCarty||and Olive Titus||New Jersey.|
|1731, February 17||Anne Maccarty||and Edward Oliver||Boston, Mass.|
|1735, August 10||Elsa MackKarty||and Dennis MackGinley||Wilmington, Del.|
|1735, December 15||Eleanor McCarty||and John Popeland||Boston, Mass.|
|1736, March 7||Patrik Macarty||and Greefje Rhee||Albany, N.Y.|
|1736, June 21||Alice MacCarty||and Samuel Winch||Scarborough, Me.|
|1736, July 7||Elisabeth McCarty||and William Bennett||Boston, Mass.|
|1736, August 28||Elizabeth Maccarty||and Joseph Dunnell||Boston, Mass.|
|1736, November 18||Ann McCarty||and Benjamin Butterworth||Burlington County, N.J.|
|1736, December 2||Margaret Maccarty||and John Rush||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, January 17||Jeremiah McCarty||and Elizabeth Brooks||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, February 6||Mary Maccarty||and Edward Fox||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, April 27||Mary Carty||and Caleb Hacker||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, August 11||Florence Carty||and Margaret Leason||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, July 11||John McCarty||and Christina McLoud||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, March 22||Elisabeth Maccarty||and James Pritchett||Boston, Mass.|
|1738, September 14||Michael McCarty||and Mary Penninton||Boston, Mass.|
|1739, December 11||Margaret McCarty||and Thomas Holmes||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1740, April 28||Elizabeth Maccarty||and John Hutchinson||Boston, Mass.|
|1740, June 24||Katharine McCarthy||and Richard Barry||Boston, Mass.|
|1740, December 1||Timothy Maccarty||and Mercy Swain||Boston, Mass.|
|1740, December 19||William Mackartey||and Ann Dennis||Charleston, S.C.|
|1741, March 24||Elizabeth McCarthy||and Patrick Corkerry||Boston, Mass.|
|1741, July 13||Duncan McCarty||and Judith Valette||Middlesex County, N.J.|
|1741, July 23||John McCarty||and Frances Chew||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1742, August 20||Owen Carty||and Esther Waters||Gloucester County, N.J.|
|1742, September 25||William McCarty||and Mary McCarty||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1742, October 24||Thomas McCarthy||and Margaret Dill||Conewago, Pa.|
|1742, December 17||Margaret McKarte||and Henry Breese||Montgomery County, Pa.|
|1742, August 5||Daniel McCarty||and Nelly Finnecey||Boston, Mass|
|1743, January 9||Daniel McCarty||and Lucretia Darby||Boston, Mass.|
|1743, February 14||Patrick McCarthy||and Catherine Anne Sanders||Nockamixon, Pa.|
|1743, April 25||Honer (HONORA?) Carty||and Cornelius Sullivan||Boston, Mass.|
|1743, September 8||Thaddeus MacCarty||and Mary Gatcomb||Boston, Mass.|
|1743, December 27||Margaret McCarty||and James Kenney||Boston, Mass.|
|1744, March 21||Eleanor McCarty||and John Martin||Newport, R.I.|
|1744, May 6||Agnes McCartee||and James Hughes||Stafford County, Va.|
|1744, ?||Robert McCarthy||and Elizabeth Plate||Wilmington, Del.|
|1744, July 10||Matthew McCarty||and Ann Warren||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1744, October 18||Ann McCarty||and James Adair||Fairfield, Conn.|
|1744, October 28||Judith McCarty||and Edward Mitchell||Newport, R.I.|
|1745, June 4||Mary McCarty||and William Sympson||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1745, July 10||Margaret McCarty||and Moses Larkin||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1745, October -||Elizabeth McCarty||and John Moore||Wilmington, Del.|
|1745, November 2||Elenor McCarty||and Nicholas Power||Somerset County, N.J.|
|1746, March 5||Margaret MacCarty||and Thomas Marshall||Boston, Mass.|
|1746, March 23||Daniel McCarty||and Mary Floyd||Medford, Mass.|
|1746, June 15||James McCarty||and Elisabeth Mey||Deer Park, N.Y.|
|1746, August 18||Gregory McCarty||and Sarah Stoakes||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1746, June 19||Mary Maccarty||and Thomas Cahill||Boston, Mass.|
|1747, August 19||Margarate McCarty||and Timothy Roake||Georgetown, Me.|
|1747, December 24||Elizabeth McCarty||and Samson Baley||Stafford County, Va.|
|1748, January 23||Esther Carty||and John Holmes||Gloucester County, N.J.|
|1748, April 10||Eleanor McCarty||and John Lemmon||Stafford County, Va.|
|1748, August 15||Sarah McCarthy||and John Wesel||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1749, May 27||Duncan McCarty||and Ann Trimble||Middlesex County, N.J.|
|1749, October 3||Eleanor McCarty||and John McDougal||New York City.|
|1749, December 25||James McCarty||and Elizabeth Montgomery||Boston, Mass.|
|1750, September 23||Honora Carty||and John Adams||Stafford County, Va.|
|1751, March 20||Daniel McCarty||and Nancy Weakely||Cumberland County, Pa.|
|1751, May 4||Charles Cartey||and Elizabeth Porter||Wilmington, Del.|
|1752, January 6||Elizabeth McCarty||and Daniel Keen||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1753, January 25||Elizabeth Carty||and Benjamin Roundy||Boston, Mass.|
|1753, July 8||Sara McCarty||and Joseph Bacon||Deer Park, N.Y.|
|1755, July 19||Frances McCarty||and John Diskin||Stafford County, Va.|
|1755, October 14||Margaret McCarty||and Stephen Hansford||Stafford County, Va.|
|1756, September 18||Charles McCartey||and Hannah Caskey||Burlington County, N.J.|
|1756, October -||Billington McCarty||and Elizabeth Downman||Richmond County, Va.|
|1758, May 19||Thaddeus McCarty||and Ann Chinn||Southampton County, Va.|
|l759, January 11||Daniel McCarthy||and Ann Savage||Boston, Mass.|
|1759, September 11||Mary McCartey||and Gilbert Bain||New York, N.Y.|
|1760, February 29||Anthony Carthy||and Catherine Carland||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1760, May 22||Florence McCarty||and Jane Mears||Boston, Mass.|
|1760, June 9||Peter McCarthy||and Nancy Thompson||Lebanon, Pa.|
|1760, July 24||Hannah McCarty||and Peter String||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1760, July 30||Matthew McCarty||and Elizabeth Gwinn||New Jersey|
|1761, March 16||John McCarty||and Margaret McFarling||Lancaster, Mass.|
|1761, July 29||Elizabeth McCarty||and Ebenezer Couch||Fairfield, Conn.|
|1761, December 14||Justin McCarty||and Mary Gross||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1762, March 2||Dennis McCartie||and Elizabeth Whitney||Shrewsbury, N.J.|
|1762, March 16||Peter McCarty||and Ann Kean||New York, N.Y.|
|1762 October 11||Catherine McCarty||and Joseph Greenwood||New York, N.Y.|
|1763, August 4||John McCarthy||and Mary Avery||Lower Norfolk Co., Va.|
|1764, March 3||Ellenore McCarty||and Thomas Smith||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1764, August 28||Margaret McCarty||and Samuel Fisher||Montgomery County, Pa.|
|1764, November 1||Catherine McCarty||and John Hickey||New York, N.Y.|
|1765, January 15||Daniel McCarty||and Winifred Thompson||Stafford County, Va.|
|1765,||Thomas McCarthy||and Phebe Lancaster||Nockamixon, Bucks Co., Pa.|
|1765, April 30||Rebecca McCarty||and Edward Low||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1765, July 25||Catherine McCarty||and Jeremiah Smith||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1765, December 31||Betty McCarthy||and George Payne||Goochland County, Va.|
|1766, June 12||Owen McCarty||and Elizabeth Dorsey||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1766, November 5||Paul McCarty||and Kissander Williams||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1766, November 19||James McCarty||and Grace Morris||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1767, January 20||Nicholas McCarthy||and Albertina Kohl||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1767, May -||Patrick Carthy||and Ann Meredith||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1767, June 15||John McCarty||and Margaret Green||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1767, June 16||John McCarty||and Elizabeth Green||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1767, August 8||Edward McCarty||and Ann McGuire||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1767, September 30||Elizabeth McCarty||and Thomas Smart||New York, N.Y.|
|1767, October -||Mrs._____ McCarty||and Bennet Oldham||Berkeley County, S.C.|
|1767, December 16||Elizabeth McCarty||and Jacob Sewery||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1768, March 21||Ann McCarty||and Patrick Doron||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1768, April 21||John McCarthy||and Mary Miller||Falmouth, Me.|
|1768, June 13||Edward McCarty||and Susannah Stedham||Wilmington, Del.|
|1768, August 12||Maria McCarty||and Stuffel Dekker||Deer Park, N.Y.|
|1768, September 14||Deborah McCarty||and John Farnsworth||Hunterdon County, N.J.|
|1768, December 30||Mary McCarty||and Tobias Peterson||Wilmington, Del.|
|1770, March 14||James McCarthey||and Judith Morris||New York, N.Y.|
|1770, February 21||Catherine McCarthy||and Lawrence Crook||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1771, February 7||Catharine McCarty||and William Walters||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1771, February 11||______ McCarty||and Samuel Walters||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1771, May 6||David McCarty||and Charlotta Witbeck||Albany, N.Y.|
|1771, September 18||_____ McCarty||and "Widow" Daley||Hallowell, Me.|
|1771, November 13||Catherine McCarty||and John Hemminger||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1772, January 1||Elizabeth McCartey||and William Bell||New York, N.Y.|
|1773, April 12||Thomas McCarty||and Abigail Marpole||Gloucester County, N.J.|
|1773, August 2||Alice McCarty||and Roger Blake||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1774, March 26||Jean McCarty||and William Martin||Wilmington, Del.|
|1774, June 29||Elizabeth McCarty||and Jarret Hughes||New Jersey|
|1775, April 19||Ann McCarty||and James Edmondson||Richmond County, Va.|
|1775, June 28||Michael McCarty||and Mary Cochran||Pennsylvania.|
|1775, November 16||Daniel Cartey||and Hope Shivers||Burlington County, N.J.|
|1776, January 11||John McCartey||and Elizabeth Simmester||Boston, Mass.|
|1776, February 13||Eleanor McCartey||and Joseph Steel||Boston, Mass.|
|1776, June 27||Dennis McCarty||and Jean Wood||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1776, May 24||James McCarty||and Elizabeth Glover||Lancaster, Pa.|
|1777, February 16||Samuel McCarty||and Lucy Burnham||Boston, Mass.|
|1777, April 29||George McCarty||and Honor Hodgkinson||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1777, May 1||Catherine McCarty||and Edward Shippey||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1777, November 4||Daniel McCartey||and Ann Shivers||Burlington County, N.J.|
|1778, April 5||Mary McCarty||and Nicholas Madden||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1778, July l2||Mary McCarthey||and Joseph Teehan||Boston, Mass.|
|1778, September 2||Lelia McCarty||and Joseph Quarrel||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1778, December 1||Dennis McCarty||and Ann Morris||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1779, January 12||Sarah Carty||and John Dobbins||Burlington County, N.J.|
|1779, April 17||Margaret McCarty||and Randolph Write||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1779, March 1||Anna McCarthy||and Thomas Prince||Boston, Mass.|
|1780, February 21||Dennis McCarty||and Nancy Homes||Albany, N.Y.|
|1781, November 27||Elizabeth McCarthy||and Hiel Pemley||New York, N.Y.|
|1781, February 9||Mary McCarty||and Henry Hill||Albany, N.Y.|
|1781, December 6||Randolph McCarthy||and Margaret Welsh||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1783, June 5||James McCarthy||and Mary Asten||Manchester, Mass.|
|1784, December 24||Margaret McCarty||and William Smith||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1785, January 18||Mary MacCarty||and Benjamin West||Worcester, Mass.|
|1785, October 20||Ann McCarthy||and Epaphroditus Hubbard||Fauquier County, VA.|
|1785, December 28||William G. MacCarthy||and Hannah Soley||Billerica, Mass.|
|1786, April 16||William McCarthey||and Mary Mulholland||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1786, November 21||Catherine McCarty||and John Williams||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1787, January 28||Florence McCarty||and Martha Cockrin||Hallowell, Me.|
|1787, October 23||Samuel McCartie||and Elizabeth Lane||Cambridge, Md.|
|1787, December 12||Cornelius McCarthy||and Sukey Hardwick||Fauquier County, Va.|
|1788, January 10||Eliza McCarty||and Burwell Bassett||Westmoreland Co., Va.|
|1788, January 22||Philip McCarty||and Polly Van Demerck||Deer Park, N.Y.|
|1788, January 22||Dennis McCarty||and Elizabeth Richman||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1788, October 8||Mary McCarty||and Gordon O’Neil||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1790, April 4||Justin McCarthy||and Lydia Lawrence||Salem, Mass.|
|1791, April 30||Daniel McCarty||and Mary McKy||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1791, September 16||Dennis McCarthy||and Mary T. Mudd||Prince George Co., Md.|
|1791, October 20||Elizabeth McCarthy||and Thomas Williams||Boston, Mass.|
|1791, October 22||Margaret McCarty||and James Craig||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1791, November 17||John McCartie||and Mary Harvey||Westminster, R.I.|
|1792, January 9||Christiana McCarty||and William Mingis||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1792, December 10||John McCarty||and Sarah McGowan||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1793, May 29||Sarah McCarty||and John McNulty||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1791, April 5||Charles McCarty||and Deborah Hutchings||New York, N.Y.|
|l794, June 28||Mary McCartey||and Samuel Probert||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1796, January 28||Hugh McCarty||and Mary Best||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1796, May 16||Hannah McCarty||and Nathan Adams||Billerica, Mass.|
|1797, September 2||Daniel McCarty||and Margaret Robinson||Westmoreland Co., Va.|
|1797, November 1||Mary McCarty||and Jabish Green||Canterbury, Conn.|
|1798, June 10||Mary McCarty||and John Ross||Boston, Mass.|
|1798, September 21||Nelly McCarty||and William Horrey||Chestertown, Md.|
|1799, January 20||Alice McCartha||and William Haughey||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1799, January 21||William McCarty||and Eliza Hills||Glastonbury, Conn.|
|1799, May 19||Philip McCarty||and Sarah Bingham||Boston, Mass.|
|1800, February 8||Mary McCarty||and Peter Bell||Philadelphia, Pa.|
|1800, August 10||William McCarty||and Betsey Thurber||Rhode lsland.|
|1800, October 4||Daniel McCarthy||and Mathilda Magruder||Prince George Co., Md.|
Ball, Sarah; wife of Dennis McCarty, 39-41
Butler, Anne; wife of Augustine Washington, 46
Butlers of Kilkenny, 46
Carty, Majan; emigrant to Virginia, 1653, 17
Fighting Race, the, 287-288
Fitzhugh family of Virginia, intermarried with the McCartys, 49-50
France, MacCarthys in, Intro., 22
Irish immigrants to Boston, 252-254
Irish settlers in Pennsylvania, 159-160
Irish immigrants to Virginia in 17th and 18th centuries, Intro., 10, 19, 44, 85, 87, 159, 160
Irish soldiers in Washington's Body-Guard, 171 n
Lee family of Virginia, intermarried with the McCartys, 42
Lafayette and Adams, entertained by the McCartys, 56
Mason, General Armistead T.; duel with John M. McCarty, 71-79
Meade, Andrew, of Virginia; a native of Kerry, Ireland, 15 n
Mordecai, John; duel with William Page McCarty, 80-82
MacArt, Cormac; King of Ireland, Intro.
MacCarthy family; their ancient pedigree, Intro.
MacCarthy, Donough; Lord of Muskerry, Intro.
MacCarthy, Donough; Earl of ClanCarthy, Intro.
MacCarthy, Florence of Virginia and his descendants, 17-20
MacCarthy, Justin; Earl of Mountcashel, Intro.
MacCarthy or MacCartee, Dennis; land patents in Virginia in 17th century, 8-15
MacCarthy, Charles, of York County, Va., 17
MacCarthy families of Augusta County, Va., 97-98
MacCarthys in the military service of France, 22
MacCarthy, Chevalier Charles; Governor of Illinois under the French, 128-136
Macartee, Elisa; immigrant to Virginia, 1653, 17
Mackartee, Charles, of York County, Va., 1688, 17
Mackartee, Dennis, of York County, Va., 1688, 17
MacCarthy, Edmond; early settler in Brunswick County, Va., 86
MacCarthy, Cornelius of Stafford County, Va., and his descendants, 83-84
MacCarthy, Alexander of Prince George County, Md., 82
MacCarty, Thaddeus of Boston, 1664-1705, 200-214
his extensive landed interests, 209-210
descended from MacCarthy Mor, Prince of Desmond, 206
MacCarty, Florence of Boston, 231-236
MacCarty, Captain Thomas of Boston, 216
MacCarty, Thaddeus (2nd), New England sea-captain, 224-227
MacCarty, Rev. Thaddeus (3rd), patriot of the Revolution, 227-229
MacCarty, Dr. Thaddeus (4th), first physician at Fitchburg, Mass., 230
MacCarty, Thaddeus (5th), New Hampsire jurist, 231
MacCartys, numerous in the Massachusetts vital records, 238-240
MacCartys, Colonial soldiers of Massachusetts, 244-249
McCarthys in Connecticut, 263-265
McCarthys in Delaware, 147-148
McCarthys in Georgia, 122-127
McCarthys in Illinois and Kentucky, 141-146
McCarthys in Louisiana, 137-138
McCarthys in Maine, 271-274
McCarthys in Maryland, 107-115
McCarthys in Massachusetts, 199
McCarthys in New Hampshire and Vermont, 275-279
McCarthys in New Jersey, 194-198
McCarthys in New York, 173-193
McCarthys in North and South Carolina, 115-122
McCarthys in Pennsylvania, 148-172
McCarthys in Rhode Island, 205-271
McCarthys in the Pennsylvania Land Records, 166-169
McCarthys in the Pennsylvania Navy, 164-165
McCarthys, New England Mariners, 280-282
McCarthys of Charlestown, Mass., 243-244
McCarthys of Medford, Mass., 250-252
McCarthys or Mccarteys of Salem Mass., 241-242
McCarthy, Captain Daniel of Boston, 254-256
McCarthy, Captain Daniel of Roxbury, 256-260
McCarthy, Captain Daniel of Philadelphia, 161-164
brings shipload of immigrants from Cork, Ire., 163
McCarthys, pioneers of Bucks County, Pa., 149-156
McCarthy, Carlton; Mayor of Richmond, Va., 284
McCarthy, Cornelius of Savannah, Ga., 123-126
McCarthy, Dr. Charles II., of Washington, D.C., 285
McCarthy, Dr. Charles of Wisconsin State Library, 285
McCarthy, Dalton of Toronto, Ont., 285
McCarthy, Dennis A., of Iloston, Mass., 285
McCarthy, Gerald of North Carolina, 285
McCarthy, James; early Schoolmaster in North Carolina, 118-119
McCarthy, Michael Henry, of Dubuque, Iowa, 284
McCarthys, Officers in Civil War, 289
McCarthys, Officers in Mexican War, 289
McCarthys, Officers in Spanish-American War, 290
McCarthys, Officers in War of 1812, 288
McCarthys, Officers in War of the Revolution, 291
McCarthys, soldiers and sailors of the Revolution, 291-295, Appendix
McCarthy, Colonel Daniel; the first American soldier in France in the World War, 290-291
McCartie, Charles and Owen; the first of the name in America, 1-4, 7-8
McCarty, Captain Charles; Member of the Virginia Convention, 67
McCarty, Darby of Frederick County, Va., 87-88
McCarty, Daniel; exiled by the Treaty of Limerick, 1691, 20-21
leading Virginia colonist, 23-26
Speaker of the House of Burgesses, 27-28
his great landed property in Virginia, 34-36
inscription on his tombstone, 33
McCarty, Daniel; King's Attorney in Virginia, 1692, 13-16
McCarty, Daniel (2nd), Burgess of Virginia, 1734, 44
appoints Augustine Washington executor of his will, 46
McCarty, Colonel Daniel of Virginia; Revolutionary patriot, 66-67
McCarthy, Dennis, of Virginia; marries Sarah Ball, 39-41
his children cousins of George Washington, 41
McCarty, Dennis, Jr., Member of Virginia House of Burgesses, 42
McCarty, Dennis, of Virginia; Colonial soldier under Washington, 57-60
McCarty, Michael, Daniel and James; Colonial soldiers of Virginia, 88
McCarty, Thaddeus; married in George Washington's home, 41
McCarty, Patrick; pioneer of Hampshire County, Va., 92-94
McCarty, Colonel Edward; Revolutionary soldier of Virginia, 94-96
McCarty, Peter of Winchester, Va., and his numerous descendants, 100-102
McCarty, Timothy; pioneer of Pocahontas County, W. Va., 99-100
McCarty, Colonel Daniel of Virginia; his negotiations with Washington, 68-69
McCarty, John Mason; his duel with General Armistead T. Mson, 71-79
McCarty, William Page; his duel with John Mordecai, 80-82
McCartys miscalled "Scotch-Irish," 96-97
McCartys as sportsmen, 102-103
McCartys numerous in Stafford County, Va., 85
McCartys mentioned in Hening's Statutes of Virginia, 89-92
McCarty family invited to attend Washington's funeral, 69-70
McCartys mentioned by Washington in his Diary, 60-63
McCartys in the Virginia Legislature, 29
New Ireland County, Maryland, 108
its subdivisions, New Connaught, New Leinster and New Munster, 108
O'Neale, Hugh of Maryland; Colonizing Agent for Lord Baltimore, 109-110
Places in the United States named for McCarthys, 104-105
Revolution, American; McCarthys in, Appendix
Rices, Irish family in Virginia, 5-6
Stanards, Irish family in Virginia, 5-6
Travers, Irish family in Virginia, 5-6
Truro Parish, Va., Records of, 43-44, 50-55
Washington, Augustine; executor of Daniel McCarty's will, 46
appoints Daniel McCarty executor of his will, 47
Washington, George; Vestryman with Daniel McCarty of Truro Parish, 52-55
his intimate relationship with the McCartys, 57-62
McCartys mentioned in his Diary, 60-63
Wright, Mary; wife of Florence MacCarthy of Virginia, 18
Yeocomico Church, Westmoreland County, Va., 32-33
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